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Bullet & cartridge , German 80 cm railway gun Schwerer Gustav

A basement is a collective term for all types of projectiles can be shot with those in the narrow sense , weaponry term for a solid body of a long-range weapon is fired and located on a ballistic trajectory moved without its own power or control.


Bullet denotes in the broadest sense "that which is shot". (including basement, formerly Geschosz, ahd. giscoʒ , ahd. geschōʒ , aengl. gescot in Austria and partly in southern Germany projectile with a long vowel in Switzerland basement with a long vowel)

The floors are depending on their condition a number of other terms such as artillery shell , base bleed , bolts (basement) , Brennecke-basement , Chapel basement , discoidal projectiles , DU projectile , dumdum bullet , unit floor , Extended Range -full-bore projectile , flat-head projectile , slug , rubber bullet , hard-core projectile , HE-floor , a hollow charge projectile , hollow-point bullet , the carcass (basement) , long projectile , jacketed bullet , minié ball , arrow (basement) , explosive projectile , FMJ or kinetic energy projectile assigned. The term projectile is also used for projectiles and ammunition .

Bullet is used as a term in gun regulations and in forensics .


The characterizing properties of the bullet are:

  • it has no drive of its own, but is accelerated from the outside . The body is supplied with initial energy ;
  • it requires a release or launching device that does not go on the flight path;
  • After leaving this facility, it has a ballistic trajectory on which it then flies like a thrown object .

The projectile is in contrast to the rocket : While the projectile is accelerated by a propellant charge and then falls in a ballistic curve, the rocket is accelerated by the propellant charge and flies through it. As soon as the propellant charge has burned out, the rocket also behaves like a projectile from this moment and falls in a ballistic curve. However, this demarcation is becoming increasingly blurred due to base bleed projectiles . These projectiles contain a gas-generating pyrotechnic charge that improves ballistic properties by reducing tail turbulence. Depending on the strength of the gas generation, a clear distinction is difficult. In the vast majority of cases, the projectile's propellant charge is a pyrotechnic charge . You can also shoot with compressed air , by means of electromagnetic firing systems (e.g. Railgun ), purely mechanically using springs and elastic materials or with other energy generators.

Physical Properties

The launch itself is fundamentally a question of energy balance ( thermodynamics ) and friction (mechanics). Internal ballistics deals with the special problems of objects shot out of pipes .

Characteristic parameters for the storey are:

Construction of a floor

The external shape of a bullet should offer as little air resistance as possible. The internal structure depends on the intended effect.

In weapons technology, for example, this is the effect of impact at the meeting point. You will likely than massive projectiles , fragmentation bullets , explosive projectiles or as carrier projectiles designed for the transport as chemical weapons.



  • Herman Frobenius : Military Lexicon. (Concise dictionary of military sciences), Verlag Martin Oldenburg, 1901.
  • Beat P. Kneubuehl : ballistics, theory and practice. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-662-58299-2 .
  • Beat Kneubuehl: Bullets. Volume 1: Ballistics, accuracy, mode of action. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 978-3-7276-7119-7 .
  • Beat Kneubuehl: Bullets. Volume 2: Ballistics, effectiveness, measurement technology. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-7276-7145-9 .
  • Beat Kneubuehl: Storeys Complete Edition. Ballistics, measurement technology, effectiveness, accuracy. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-613-30666-0 .
  • Beat Kneubuehl: The ricochet of bullets from a forensic point of view. 1999, ISBN 978-2-940098-15-6 .
  • Bernhard von Poten : Concise dictionary of the entire military science. Volume 4, Bielefeld, Velhagen & Klasing, 1877, reprint Europäische Geschichtsverlag, Paderborn, 2015 ISBN 978-3-86382-520-1 .
  • Wilhelm Riistow : Military hand dictionary. Edited from the standpoint of the latest literature and with the support of experts. and redigirt, Volume 1 A - K . F. Schulthess, 1858, p. 257 ( limited preview in Google Book search).

Web links

Commons : Bullet  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: floor  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Duden editors : The dictionary of origin (=  German language in 12 volumes . Volume  7 ). 5th edition. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2015, p. 333 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  2. Geschosz, n. . In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . 16 volumes in 32 sub-volumes, 1854–1960. S. Hirzel, Leipzig ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).
  3. floor. In: Digital dictionary of the German language .
  4. ^ Switzerland: bullet with a long vowel "o" ; Austria: also with a long vowel "o", written "Geschoss" .
  5. ^ Bernhard von Poten: Concise dictionary of the entire military sciences. Page 90, entry: floor
  6. Herman Frobenius, Military Lexicon. Page 277, entry: Storeys
  7. ^ Wilhelm Riistow: Military hand dictionary. Page 277, entry: Storey
  8. ^ Beat P. Kneubuehl: Ballistics, Theory and Practice. ( Digitized online )
  9. Full text search in the Weapons Act at buzzer.de
  10. ^ University of Bern, Institute for Forensic Medicine, Center for Forensic Physics / Ballistics.