A basement is a collective term for all types of projectiles can be shot with those in the narrow sense , weaponry term for a solid body of a long-range weapon is fired and located on a ballistic trajectory moved without its own power or control.
Bullet denotes in the broadest sense "that which is shot". (including basement, formerly Geschosz, ahd. giscoʒ , ahd. geschōʒ , aengl. gescot in Austria and partly in southern Germany projectile with a long vowel in Switzerland basement with a long vowel)
The floors are depending on their condition a number of other terms such as artillery shell , base bleed , bolts (basement) , Brennecke-basement , Chapel basement , discoidal projectiles , DU projectile , dumdum bullet , unit floor , Extended Range -full-bore projectile , flat-head projectile , slug , rubber bullet , hard-core projectile , HE-floor , a hollow charge projectile , hollow-point bullet , the carcass (basement) , long projectile , jacketed bullet , minié ball , arrow (basement) , explosive projectile , FMJ or kinetic energy projectile assigned. The term projectile is also used for projectiles and ammunition .
The characterizing properties of the bullet are:
- it has no drive of its own, but is accelerated from the outside . The body is supplied with initial energy ;
- it requires a release or launching device that does not go on the flight path;
- After leaving this facility, it has a ballistic trajectory on which it then flies like a thrown object .
The projectile is in contrast to the rocket : While the projectile is accelerated by a propellant charge and then falls in a ballistic curve, the rocket is accelerated by the propellant charge and flies through it. As soon as the propellant charge has burned out, the rocket also behaves like a projectile from this moment and falls in a ballistic curve. However, this demarcation is becoming increasingly blurred due to base bleed projectiles . These projectiles contain a gas-generating pyrotechnic charge that improves ballistic properties by reducing tail turbulence. Depending on the strength of the gas generation, a clear distinction is difficult. In the vast majority of cases, the projectile's propellant charge is a pyrotechnic charge . You can also shoot with compressed air , by means of electromagnetic firing systems (e.g. Railgun ), purely mechanically using springs and elastic materials or with other energy generators.
Characteristic parameters for the storey are:
- its kinetic energy to the projectile mass and especially with the muzzle velocity increases
- the bullet diameter , which is given in caliber .
Construction of a floor
The external shape of a bullet should offer as little air resistance as possible. The internal structure depends on the intended effect.
In weapons technology, for example, this is the effect of impact at the meeting point. You will likely than massive projectiles , fragmentation bullets , explosive projectiles or as carrier projectiles designed for the transport as chemical weapons.
- for firearms and artillery: the projectile , for example a grenade - the ejection charge sits behind the projectile in the cartridge , of which the cartridge case remains
- with a bow : the arrow
- for a crossbow : the bolt
- with the slingshot and the Zwille (slingshot): the stone (or another projectile, such as metal balls)
- for fireworks : the bombs and bomb beds that - in contrast to the firework rockets popular with laypeople - are shot from mortars .
- Herman Frobenius : Military Lexicon. (Concise dictionary of military sciences), Verlag Martin Oldenburg, 1901.
- Beat P. Kneubuehl : ballistics, theory and practice. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg 2018, ISBN 978-3-662-58299-2 .
- Beat Kneubuehl: Bullets. Volume 1: Ballistics, accuracy, mode of action. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 978-3-7276-7119-7 .
- Beat Kneubuehl: Bullets. Volume 2: Ballistics, effectiveness, measurement technology. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-7276-7145-9 .
- Beat Kneubuehl: Storeys Complete Edition. Ballistics, measurement technology, effectiveness, accuracy. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-613-30666-0 .
- Beat Kneubuehl: The ricochet of bullets from a forensic point of view. 1999, ISBN 978-2-940098-15-6 .
- Bernhard von Poten : Concise dictionary of the entire military science. Volume 4, Bielefeld, Velhagen & Klasing, 1877, reprint Europäische Geschichtsverlag, Paderborn, 2015 ISBN 978-3-86382-520-1 .
- Wilhelm Riistow : Military hand dictionary. Edited from the standpoint of the latest literature and with the support of experts. and redigirt, Volume 1 A - K . F. Schulthess, 1858, p. 257 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Duden editors : The dictionary of origin (= German language in 12 volumes . Volume 7 ). 5th edition. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2015, p. 333 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Geschosz, n. . In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . 16 volumes in 32 sub-volumes, 1854–1960. S. Hirzel, Leipzig ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).
- floor. In: Digital dictionary of the German language .
- Switzerland: bullet with a long vowel "o" ; Austria: also with a long vowel "o", written "Geschoss" .
- Bernhard von Poten: Concise dictionary of the entire military sciences. Page 90, entry: floor
- Herman Frobenius, Military Lexicon. Page 277, entry: Storeys
- Wilhelm Riistow: Military hand dictionary. Page 277, entry: Storey
- Beat P. Kneubuehl: Ballistics, Theory and Practice. ( Digitized online )
- Full text search in the Weapons Act at buzzer.de
- University of Bern, Institute for Forensic Medicine, Center for Forensic Physics / Ballistics.