|design type||Joint - bus|
|axes||3, steered front and rear|
|engine||Rába -MAN D 2156 HM6U|
|power||192 hp at 2100 rpm|
|height||3.3 m over roof scissors, over car body 3.0 m|
|Wheelbase||5500 + 6020 mm|
|Turning circle||21.2 m|
|Floor height||880 mm|
|Seats||30-40 + 1 + 1
180.22: 60 + 1
|Standing room||z. B. 127-150|
|Perm. total weight||23,500 kg|
|Similar models||Henschel HS 160 USL-G|
Since around 1960, Ikarus has developed an urgently needed large-capacity bus for urban local transport , the concept of which is based on the progressive German HS 160 USL oriented by Henschel . Front end and rear end were connected to each other by a joint with a bellows . The diesel engine was positioned below the floor between the first and second axles. The one in the three prototypes (K 1-K 3, each from 1961 [initially without engine], 1962 and 1963) and the pilot series comprising ten cars, JÁFI- Csepel used 6-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine C. 619 with a displacement of 9,572 cm³ and an output of 180 hp at 2500 rpm was not satisfactory. Series production was initially expected to begin in 1963.
The drive unit is a water cooled came 6-cylinder - Diesel engine type D 2156 HM6U the Hungarian producer Rába in license from MAN with a displacement of 10,350 cm 3 together with a manually switching, partially synchronized five-speed gearbox is used. The engine delivered an output of 141 kW (192 hp) at 2100 rpm. It was located underfloor between the axles of the front of the car and drove the middle axle of the vehicle via a single-disc dry clutch , the transmission and an outer planetary gear . With this drive unit, the bus reached a top speed of 64 km / h. The single-tire axle in the trailer was steered.
Rigid axles were used on the chassis . The bus was sprung with a combination of leaf springs and air suspension , while the chassis was damped with telescopic shock absorbers . With an empty weight of 13.35 t, the permissible total weight was 23.5 t. The bus had hydraulic power steering . The pneumatic brake acted on all wheels and was supplemented by a mechanical parking brake .
Version for city traffic (180.10, 180.12, 180.32)
Electropneumatic folding doors were used as doors (with different numbers of door leaves in the order from front to back 2-3-2-4), which were operated by the driver (in the early years also by the conductor). The city version had four doors for quick passenger change, in the front there was a two-winged door in the front and a three-winged door in the middle, in the trailer there was a two-winged door in front and a four-winged door in the back. The large-capacity bus for city traffic was designed for passenger flow from back to front with a conductor sitting next to the two-lane entrance in the rear . The conduct-less operation introduced by the shortage of staff in the 1960s led to the use of payment boxes , and later also of validators in the area of the doors for passenger self-handling without passenger flow. The passenger compartment offered space for 36 seats and 118 standing places.
Version for overland traffic (180.22)
There was also the overland version Ikarus 180.22, which was able to offer more seats (60) at greater distances between stops because it only had two doors. These were located both in the front of the car (two-winged / single-lane) and in the rear-end (four-winged / two-lane) at the front. Tickets were usually sold from the driver.
Ikarus 180 in the GDR
The second prototype of the Ikarus 180 (K 2) was shown at the Leipzig spring fair in 1962 and later tested in various cities. From Easter Sunday, April 14, 1963 until May, he was in use in Berlin on the suburban and excursion line 27 between Kaulsdorf and Müggelheim and also on the city line 57. After that he was also on a trial run in Erfurt and Karl-Marx-Stadt. During the test drives, the usefulness and necessity of such an articulated bus was determined. On the other hand, a number of significant shortcomings were noticed. These included cylinder head gaskets with a tendency to burn through and high oil consumption, as well as the susceptibility of compressed air-controlled doors to failure.
The series deliveries to the GDR took place from January 1967 to 1973. The four-door city version with a fixed conductor's place to the right of the rear door offered space for 35 seats and 119 standing places for 154 passengers. The driver's seat had a separate cabin with a door to the passenger compartment. From the end of the 1960s on the Schaffnerplatz was dispensed with, the cars were used in OS operation ( O hne S chaffner).
In Zwickau, two intercity buses from the company "Fahrtienst Kaiser" were opened in the mid-1980s a. a. modernized with parts of buses from Neoplan , so that their origins could no longer be seen.
In addition to the Ikarus 180, the two-axle type 556 bus was also developed as the successor to the Ikarus 66 , which, with a length of 10.855 m, was a simplified version of the 180 without a trailer, but with its rear. Compared to the Type 66, it offered 22 passengers more space, with a vehicle length that was 0.5 m shorter. It was first presented in the GDR at the Leipzig spring fair in 1963, but series production did not start until later. A touring coach variant with model number 557 was also derived, which was equipped with a refrigerator and toilet.
- Articulated buses at the BVG (East) . In: Der Stadtverkehr , issue 2/1967, p. 47, Werner Stock, Brackwede 1967, 1 D 21850 E
- Werner Oswald: Motor vehicles of the GDR . Motorbuchverlag, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-613-01913-2 .
- Michael Dünnebier: Trucks and buses from socialist countries . transpress, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-344-00272-4 .
- MOGÜRT, Hungarian foreign trade company for motor vehicles (Ed.): City bus type Ikarus 180 . Presto Publishing House, Budapest 1967.
- Louis-André Weiland: The prototype of the Ikarus 180 for the GDR . In: Berliner Verkehrsblätter , 65th year, Berlin Local Transport Working Group, Berlin 2018, issue 3/2018 p. 49–54, issue 4/2018 p. 65-68
- Dieter Gammrath, Heinz Jung: Berlin buses . alba-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1988, ISBN 3-87094-334-3 .
- Ikarus articulated bus . In: Motor vehicle technology , issue 4/1961, p. 156/157.
- Articulated large-capacity buses from the Hungarian People's Republic . In: Motor vehicle technology , issue 9/1962, pp. 371–374.
- Experience with the Hungarian K-180 articulated bus. In: Motor Vehicle Technology 3/1964, pp. 111–112.
- Pictures from 1986
- Louis-André Weiland: The prototype of the Ikarus 180 for the GDR (1) in: Berliner Verkehrsblätter , Issue 3/2018, pp. 49–54
- Ikarus 556 large-capacity bus . In: Motor vehicle technology , Issue 7/1963, pp. 257-258.
- Hungarian commercial vehicles at the Budapest fair in 1963. In: Motor vehicle technology . 8/1963, pp. 304-307.