Copper shadow hummingbird
|Copper shadow hummingbird|
Copper shadow hummingbird
|Lawrence , 1868|
The copper shadow hummingbird or hermit hummingbird ( Glaucis aeneus ) is a species of bird from the hummingbird family (Trochilidae) found in Honduras , Nicaragua , Costa Rica , Panama , Colombia and Ecuador . The IUCN assesses the population as Least Concern . The species is considered to be monotypical .
The copper shadow hummingbird reaches a body length of about 9 to 10 cm, with a weight of about 3.0 to 6.5 g for males and about 3.6 g for females. It is very similar to the red-tailed shadow hummingbird ( Glaucis hirsutus ), but is slightly smaller and has a slightly more curved black beak. The underside is more yellow-brown and less whitish than the red-tailed shadow hummingbird. The top is bronze to copper green. The color of the throat and the upper part of the chest of the male merges seamlessly into the belly. The jagged hems on the upper beak are only found in the male. The female has slightly shorter wings than the male and a more curved beak without the teeth. Young birds resemble the red-tailed shadow hummingbird, have a yellow-brown stripe over the eyes , the top of the head and the neck. The back feathers often have yellow-brown to white spots. The umbrella feathers and most of the wing covers, and perhaps more clearly the control feathers , have a deeper white triangle at the top.
Behavior and nutrition
The copper shadow hummingbird gets its nectar from heliconias, for example . Small arthropods , which he collects buzzing, are also part of his diet. He finds these in secondary vegetation. He often preyed on them from cobwebs or from leaves and branches. Most of the time it hunts the insects in flight.
The singing consists of a light-sounding, decreasing measure of tsii-tsii-tsi-tsitstitsi sounds. He extends this irregularly with a series of high-pitched siii tones. The flight song consists of a bright tsiit .
The breeding season in Colombia lasts from May to August, in Costa Rica from January to August. In the northeast of Costa Rica, it should even last from October to August. Reports from Panama speak of nests in June and July. Studies of the gonads in Colombia indicate activity in March and April. The nest is a cone-shaped calyx made of loose plant stalks decorated with lichen and plant material. A clutch consists of two eggs and is incubated for about 17 to 19 days. The development of the nestlings is similar to that of the red-tailed shadow hummingbird.
distribution and habitat
The copper shadow hummingbird prefers disturbed primary forest, dense or old secondary forest, forest edges, thickets and scrub, swamp forests and areas near rivers. Probably he likes a slightly open habitat in contrast to other sympatric hermits. In Costa Rica it occurs at altitudes up to 750 meters and in Colombia up to 800 meters.
The copper shadow hummingbird is likely a resident bird .
Etymology and history of research
The copper shadow hummingbird was first described in 1868 by George Newbold Lawrence under the scientific name Glaucis aeneus . The type specimen was collected by Auguste Endrés (1838–1874) in Costa Rica . In 1831 Friedrich Boie introduced the new genus Glaucis . This word comes from the Greek word "glaukos γλαυκός " for "blue-gray, glauk , light green". The species name "aeneus" is derived from the Latin "aes, aeris" for "bronze, bronze-colored".
- Christoph Hinkelmann , Guy Maxwell Kirwan , Peter Boesman in: Josep del Hoyo , Andrew Elliott, Jordi Sargatal , David Andrew Christie , Eduardo de Juana: Bronzy Hermit (Glaucis aeneus) In: Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive . Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
- James A. Jobling: Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names . Christopher Helm, London 2010, ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4 .
- George Newbold Lawrence: Description of Five New Species of Central American Birds . In: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia . tape 19 , no. 4 , 1867, p. 232-234 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Friedrich Boie: Comments on species and some ornithological families and clans . In: Isis von Oken . tape 24 , 1831, pp. 538-548 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Glaucis aeneus inthe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018.2. Posted by: BirdLife International, 2016. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- BirdLife International: Species Factsheet - Bronzy Hermit ( Glaucis aeneus ) . Accessed December 31, 2018.
- Videos, photos and sound recordings of Bronzy Hermit (Glaucis aeneus) in the Internet Bird Collection
- Copper shadow hummingbird ( Glaucis aeneus ) at Avibase; accessed on December 31, 2018.
- Glaucis aeneus in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Accessed December 31, 2018.
- xeno-canto: sound recordings - Bronzy Hermit ( Glaucis aeneus )
- Copper shadow hummingbird (Glaucis aeneus) in the Encyclopedia of Life . Accessed December 31, 2018.
- IOC World Bird List Hummingbirds
- Christoph Hinkelmann u. a.
- George Newbold Lawrence, p. 232
- Friedrich Boie, p. 545
- James A. Jobling, p. 174
- James A. Jobling, p. 33.
- Even if the volume of the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia indicates the year 1867, the article did not appear until 1868.
- Boie wrote the new genus Trochilus brasiliensis Latham , 1790 a synonym for the red-tailed shadow hummingbird ( Glaucis hirsutus ( Gmelin, JF , 1788)), Trochilus ruficollis Vieillot , 1817 a synonym for then golden sapphire hummingbird ( Hylocharis chrysura , 1812) ( Shaw ), Trochilus Azara Vieillot , 1817 is synonymous with the Bluebeard Hummingbird ( Heliomaster furcifer ( Shaw , 1812)), the red-tailed Hermit Trochilus hirutus Gmelin, JF , 1788, Trochilus dominicus Gmelin, JF synonymous with the Dominican Mango Hummingbird ( Anthracothorax dominicus ( Linnaeus , 1766) ) Trochilus ruber Gmelin, JF a Synom for the reddish hermit ( Phaethornis ruber ( Linnaeus , 1758)), Trochilus longirostris Vieillot , 1801 is synonymous with the Rose-throated Hummingbird ( Heliomaster longirostris ( Audebert & Vieillot , 1801)), Trochilus cinereus Gmelin, JF , 1788 a synonym for the gray-breasted rapier wing ( Campylopterus largipennis ( Boddaert , 1783)) and Trochilus margaritaceus Gmelin, JF , 1788 a Sy nonym for the Dominican Mangocolibri too.