Mura or Son (both Japanese 村 , German "village", corresponds to Chinese 村, pinyin "cūn") is a communal administrative unit in Japan . Localities with the official name Mura are usually smaller communities in rural Japan (see rural community ). They always belong to a county gun . The official English translation of this communal unit (important for transcribed place-name signs) is village .
Due to the amalgamation of many municipalities in recent years, their number has fallen sharply, from 568 at the beginning of the Heisei regional reform ( Heisei Daigappei ) in April 1999 to 189 on January 1, 2019.
The following 13 prefectures therefore no longer have a mura :
- Ehime prefecture
- Fukui Prefecture
- Hyogo Prefecture
- Hiroshima Prefecture
- Ishikawa Prefecture
- Kagawa Prefecture
- Mie prefecture
- Nagasaki Prefecture
- Saga prefecture
- Shiga prefecture
- Shizuoka Prefecture
- Tochigi prefecture
- Yamaguchi Prefecture
or these 12 prefectures only have one:
- Chiba Prefecture ( Chōsei , Chōsei-gun )
- Kanagawa Prefecture ( Kiyokawa , Aikō-gun )
- Kyoto Prefecture ( Minamiyamashiro , Soraku-gun )
- Miyagi Prefecture ( Ōhira , Kurokawa-gun )
- Oita Prefecture ( Himeshima , Higashikunisaki-gun )
- Osaka Prefecture ( Chihayaakasaka , Minamikawachi-gun )
- Saitama Prefecture ( Higashichichibu , Chichibu-gun )
- Shimane Prefecture ( Chibu , Oki-gun )
- Tokushima Prefecture ( Sanagouchi , Myōdō-gun )
- Tottori Prefecture ( Hiezu , Saihaku-gun )
- Toyama Prefecture ( Funahashi , Nakaniikawa-gun )
- Wakayama Prefecture ( Kitayama , Higashimuro-gun )
(As of January 1, 2019)
The Kun reading Mura for the character is more common than the On reading Son . The term Son is currently used in only six prefectures . In the prefectures of Miyazaki , Okayama , Okinawa , Tokushima and Tottori all villages are called Son , in Kagoshima Prefecture it is only used in two of the four villages.
All other prefectures use the Mura reading .
In 2018 there were still 183 villages in Japan, 28 of which were designated as son .
- Zenkoku chōsonkai ( 全国町 村 会 , National Association of Mayors of Machi and Mura; Japanese, Chinese, English, Korean)
- Zenkoku chōsongikai gichōkai ( 全国町 村 議会 議長 会 , National Association of Speakers of Parliament of machi and mura; Japanese)