Paul Joseph Barthez

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The French physician and encyclopedia Paul-Joseph Barthez (1734–1806).

Paul Joseph de Barthez de Marmorières , mostly Paul-Joseph Barthez (born December 11, 1734 in Montpellier , † October 15, 1806 in Paris ) was a French doctor, physiologist and encyclopaedist .

Live and act

Paul Joseph was the son of the bridge and road construction engineer , ingénieur des ponts et chaussées Guillaume de Barthez de Marmorières . His father was married to Marie Rey and married on February 28, 1734 in Montpellier. Paul Joseph Barthez had four brothers Antoine (1736-1811), Jacques (1741-1813), Pierre (1747-1811) and Guillaume de Barthez de Marmorières (1755-1817). Together with his father, both were later involved as encyclopedists with their contributions to the Encyclopédie by Denis Diderot .

Barthez first studied rhetoric and philosophy in Toulouse . On October 30, 1750 he enrolled at the Université de Médicine de Montpellier , his baccalauréat (see also bachelor's degree ) there on February 13, 1753, his license on July 16, 1753 and his doctorate on August 3, 1753. In old age at nineteen he received his doctorate from the medical faculty of Montpellier, then Barthez spent some years in Paris, where he became friends with Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert and became part of the intellectual circles in the French capital. In 1755 he took part in the clashes during the Seven Years' War as a field doctor in Normandy and Hanover , fell ill with typhus and returned to Paris. In 1757 and worked on the Encyclopédie and the Journal des savants .

In the period from 1761 to 1778 he was appointed professor of physiology in Montpellier and then also took over the function of chancellor. From 1781 he was the personal physician of the Duke of Orléans, he was promoted to regimental physician for the Dragoons and a member of the Council of State , médecin-chef de tous les régiments de dragons et conseiller d'État . He was also appointed a member of the Academy of Sciences in Paris . In 1780 he became a foreign member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences . In 1785 he became Chancellor of the University of Paris . From 1789 he moved his center of life again to Montpellier due to political difficulties in pre-revolutionary Paris.

Barthez, along with Théophile de Bordeu, is one of the founders of French vitalism in the Montpellier School , Doctrine médicale de l'École de Montpellier . He traced the unity of the organism back to a universally valid principle of life, which holds the individual parts of the body together through " sympathy ": the "forces radicales" (basic forces) decide on the state of the organism, and the "forces agissantes" (partial forces) have control the functions of the individual organs.

Statues of Barthez and Lapeyronie in front of the entrance to the Montpellier Medical Faculty, Faculté de médecine de Montpellier .

Works (selection)

  • Oratio Academica de Principio Vitali Hominis , 1772
  • Nouveaux éléments de la science de l'homme , 1773. 2nd edition 1806. Volume I (digitized version) . Volume II (digitized version)
  • Nouvelle Mécanique des mouvements paride l'homme et des animau x, 1802;
  • Traité des maladies goutteuses , 2 volumes, Deterville, Paris 1802. Volume I (digitized version ) . Volume II (digitized version)


  • August Hirsch . Paul Joseph Barthez. In: Ernst Julius Gurlt and August Hirsch. Biographical lexicon of the outstanding doctors of all times and peoples. Volume I, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Vienna and Leipzig 1884, pp. 307–310 (digitized version )
  • Barbara I. Tshisuaka: Barthez, Paul-Joseph. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 147 f.

Web links

Wikisource: Paul Joseph Barthez  - Sources and full texts (French)

Individual evidence

  1. Frank A. Kafker: Notices sur les auteurs of dix-sept volumes de "discours" de l'Encyclopédie. Research on Diderot et sur l'Encyclopédie. 1989, Volume 7, Numéro 7, p. 129
  2. Genealogy of the parents ( Memento of the original from July 25, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. Williams, Elizabeth, A .: A Cultural History of Medical Vitalism in Enlightenment Montpellier (The History of Medicine in Context). Ashgate Publishing Limited 2003, ISBN 0-754-60881-6 , pp. 147-172.
  4. ^ Biographical data of Jacqueline Brossolet, in French
  5. ^ Members of the previous academies. Paul-Joseph Barthez. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities , accessed on February 18, 2015 .
  6. Wolfgang U. Eckart : Paul -Joseph Barthez , In: Wolfgang U. Eckart and Christoph Gradmann (eds.): Ärztelexikon. From antiquity to the present , 1st edition 1995 CH Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung München p. 39 + 40, 2nd edition 2001 p. 27, 3rd edition 2006 Springer Verlag Heidelberg, Berlin, New York p. 28. Medical glossary 2006 , doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-540-29585-3 .
  7. ^ Dörner, Klaus : Citizens and Irre. On the social history and sociology of science in psychiatry. (1969) Fischer Taschenbuch, Bücher des Wissens, Frankfurt / M 1975, ISBN 3-436-02101-6 ; P. 121 ff.