from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Petraloifas or Petraliphas was the family name of a Byzantine noble family of Norman origin.

Origin in Normandy

According to Niketas Choniates, the Norman Peter von Alife is regarded as the progenitor and namesake of the family in Constantinople .

Peter von Alife belonged to the powerful Norman aristocratic family Drengot, which - after "Quarellis", the Latin name of their place of origin Carreaux near Avesnes-en-Bay, east of Rouen in Normandy  - was called "Drengot Quarrel".

Rise in Italy

Four brothers from this family are said to have followed their fifth brother, Osmond, who was expelled from Richard II Duke of Normandy (996-1026) for the murder of a hunting companion , to southern Italy at the beginning of the 11th century. There there was a rapid rise of the family, who entered the service of the Lombard princes in southern Italy (Benevento, Salerno) as mercenary leaders in order to oppose the Holy Roman Empire , the Byzantine Empire, the Saracens or their neighbors defend. The Drengots married Sergius IV, lord of the Duchy of Naples , received the county of Alife ( province of Caserta ), in 1029 the county of Aversa in Campania , rose to princes of Capua in 1058 and also ruled the counties of Acerenza and Caiazzo, so that they were temporarily were the most powerful family in southern Italy.

Displacement by the Hauteville

In the first half of the 12th century, the descent followed, as the family was increasingly ousted and disempowered by the Hauteville family . Since the Hauteville also threatened the Byzantine Empire, it was obvious for members of the House of Drengot to ally themselves with the enemy of their enemy and to enter the service of the Byzantine Empire.

Transfer to Constantinople

In Constantinople , Niketas Choniates mentions "quatuor fratres Petraliphæ, ex Francica gente oriundi" (four brothers Petraliphas, who come from France).

The family also enjoyed a high reputation in Constantinople. Alexios Petraloifas, who was presumably a son of Peter von Alife and the nearer progenitor of the family in the Byzantine Empire, was appointed envoy and general of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (1143–1180) with 6000 men and extensive gifts to the Sultan of the Seljuks in 1174 , Sent Kilij Arslan II to obtain from him, as agreed, the surrender of the areas that he had taken from the common enemies, the Danischmenden . This used Petraloifas to move the cities to surrender, but refused to hand them over to Petraloifas.

Descendants in the Byzantine Empire

Alexios Petroliafas was married to Anna Comnena (Rogeria), the daughter of John Dalassenos Rogerios - 1143 pretender to the throne of Byzantium and also Norman origin - and Maria Komnene († 1143/45), a daughter of Emperor John II. Of Byzantium (1118–1143) was.

The exact family connection to the later generations of the house is uncertain. shows two lines:

First line:

Theodoros Petraloifas

oo ne

Two children:

  • Theodoros Petraloifas
oo ne
  • Petraloifaina
oo c. 1216 Alexius Slaw
He was a Bulgarian Boljar , voivode of Melnik and held the title of despot.
He comes from the Assen family through his mother , as she was a sister of the Bulgarian tsarist brothers Ivan Assen I (1187–1196), Peter I Assen (1196–1197) and Kalojan (1197–1207). In 1207 he opposed the succession of his cousin Boril as tsar of the Bulgarians and founded an independent state in the Rhodope Mountains , which was annexed in 1230 by the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Assen II .
  • Maria Dukaina Komnene Petralophaina
oo v. 1210 Theodoros I Komnenos Dukas Angelos , lord of Corinth , Nauplion and Argos (S. v. Johannes Komnenos Dukas Angelos ud Zoe Ne.), Who in 1215 succeeded his half-brother Michael I. Komnenos Dukas Angelos as lord of Epirus, in 1224 to the Ruler of the kingdom of Thessaloniki and was crowned Emperor of the Romans (Emperor of the Byzantine Empire ) in 1225 as Theodor I.
About her daughter
  • Irene Komnene Dukaina,
oo 1237/1238 Ivan Assen II. Tsar of the Bulgarians (1218–1241)
she left a large number of offspring that continue to bloom in the female line to this day.

Second line:

John Petraliphas

Georgios Akropolites calls him "magnus chartularius" (Chancellor?) And counts him among the important nobles at the court of Emperor John III. Vatatzes .
oo Helena Ne

Three children:

oo 1230 Michael II. Komnenos Dukas Angelos Despot of Epirus , (* 1205, † 1267/68, buried in Arta ). From this marriage - especially through their sons-in-law Manfred von Hohenstaufen († falls in the battle of Benevento February 26, 1266 ) and Wilhelm II von Villehardouin, Prince of Achaia  - there are descendants that continue to flourish in a female line in Europe.
  • Theodoros Petraloifas
oo c. 1250 Ne Tornikaine, daughter of Demetrios Tornikes
  • Maria Petraloifaina,
oo 1266 Philippe Chinard, a Franconian from Cyprus , Admiral of Sicily , was appointed governor of Corfu by King Manfred von Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily , who had conquered Corfu in 1258 , but was murdered by his wife in 1266 - the year of his wedding.


  • John Julius Norwich: The Normans in the South 1016-1130 . Longmans, London 1967.
  • John Julius Norwich: The Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194 . Longman, London 1970.
  • Ferdinand Chalandon: Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicile . Paris, 1907.
  • Giuseppe De Blasiis: L'insurrezione pugliese e la conquista normanna nel secolo XI , 3 full. Napoli 1869-73.

Web link

Individual evidence

  1. Petraloifas . Notes 428 and 429, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
  2. ^ Drengot family in the English language Wikipedia
  3. Petraloifas . Note 429: Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 4, p. 110, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
  4. Petraloifas . Note 430: Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VII, 1, p. 292, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.
  5. Rallia (Raoul) . Note 476: Alexeiad, Book 12, page 379. Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
  6. Petraloifas . Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
  7. Detlev Schwennike: European family tables. New episode. Volume II, plate 169. Verlag JA Stargardt
  8. FMG Bulgaria, Tsars of the Bulgarians 1186–1258, (family of Asen)
  9. Petraloifas . Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
  10. Petraloifas , Note 437 Foundation for Medieval Genealogy