Pinot Meunier

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Pinot Meunier
Synonyms Schwarzriesling, Müllerrebe - for more see section Synonyms
Pinot Meunier
Art Grape vine ( Vitis vinifera subsp. Vinifera )
Berry color black blue
origin France
known since 16th century
VIVC no. 9278
List of grape varieties

Pinot Meunier (or Schwarzriesling , Müllerrebe ) is a red wine variety and belongs to the group of Burgundy varieties .

Descent, origin

The variety is a mutation of Pinot noirs (or vice versa), which was already known in the 16th century. Ferdinand Regner , head of the grapevine breeding department at the Federal Office for Viticulture and Fruit Growing in Klosterneuburg, assumes that the Black Riesling was involved in numerous cross-breeding (very often with Traminer ) and that it represents the forefather of the Burgundy family.

Paul K. Boss and Mark R. Thomas from the CSIRO Plant Industry and Cooperative Research Center for Viticulture in Glen Osmond, Australia found that the vine was not responding to gibberellic acid , a plant hormone , because of a mutated gene . This explains the different ripening process and the slightly smaller size compared to Pinot Noir berries.


Miller's vine - it got its name because its very hairy leaves on the underside look as if they were dusted with flour. In Germany, Müller’s vine is a synonym for Black Riesling, in Austria Blue Postitsch grape (cultivated in Styria and Eastern Switzerland) and in Australia Miller’s Burgundy (cultivated in Southeast Australia).

Ampelographic variety characteristics

Leaf shape
  • The shoot tip is open and thickly felted, hairy with white wool.
  • The medium-sized leaves are rounded, usually five-lobed, medium-thick. The stem bay is V-shaped, open to closed. The blade is bluntly serrated. The leaf surface is rough and blistered and coarse. The underside of the leaf is densely hairy (as if dusted with flour, hence the name Müllerrebe).
  • The conical to cylindrical grape is medium-sized and has dense berries. The round to oval berries are small to medium-sized and black-blue in color.

The variety has a pendulous habit, which is why the shoots are difficult to pin up. It has a medium-late maturity .


The characteristics and demands are very similar to those of the Blue Pinot Noir. It has lower demands on soil and climate than the Pinot Noir and is considered to be insensitive to late frost due to its late budding. It also has good winter frost resistance. It is less susceptible to powdery mildew and downy mildew . Because of the density of berries, there is an increased susceptibility to botrytis .


The grapes produce a wine with a ruby ​​to brick red color and a fruity aroma .


Due to the lower risk of trickling, the variety is relatively reliable in terms of yield.


Worldwide there is a cultivation area of ​​13,568 ha (2010):

country Vineyards ha 2010
France 11,087
Germany 2,303
United States 66
United Kingdom 50
New Zealand 19th
Italy 14th
South Africa 13
Argentina 12
Canada 5
Spain 1
World acreage 2010 13,568


In Champagne , Pinot Meunier takes up around 30% of the vineyard area (11,087 hectares, as of 2010) and is part of the basic champagne wines along with Pinot noir and Chardonnay . Most of the vineyards are in the Marne valley . (→ see also the article Viticulture in France )


In Germany , 2,058 ha (= 2% of the German vineyard area) were planted with the Pinot Meunier grape variety in 2015. In recent years, the area under vines has decreased.

Growing area Area ha 2015
Germany 2,058
Rhineland-Palatinate 244
Baden-Württemberg 1,730
to bathe
Bavaria (Franconia) 77
Hesse 3
Hessian mountain road
New federal states 2


Synonyms: 70; Auvergnat Gris, Auvernat Blanc, Auvernat Gris, Auvernat Meunier, Black Cluster, Blanc Meunier, Blanche Feuille, Blaue Postitschtraube, Blauer Riesling, Bourgogne Miller's, Carpinet, Cerny Mancujk, Credinet, Enfarine, Farineux, Farineux Noir, Fernaise, Feuille Blanche , Fromente, Fruehe Blaue Muellerrebe, Fruehe Muellerrebe, Goujean, Goujeau, Gris Meunier, Meunier, Meunier Crni, Meunier Noir, Meusnier, Miller Grape, Miller's Burgundy, Miller's Grape, Mlinarica Rana Modra, Mlynarka, Molnar Toke Toke, Molnnarzoeloe Kek, Monje Crni, Morillon Tacone, Morillon Taconne, Morone Farinaccio, Moucnik, Mueller, Muellerebe, Muellerrebe, Mueller grape, Muellerweib, Munier, Munier Grape, Noirien de Vuillapans, Noirin Enfarine, Ordinaere Muellerrebe, Pineau Meunier, Pinotroelle, Plant de Brie, Plant Meunier, Postitschtraube, Rana Modra Mlinaria, Rana Modra Mlinarica, Rana Modra Molinaria, Resseau, Riesling Noir, Sarpinet, Schwarzblaue Muellerrebe, Schwarze Riesling , Black Riesling, Black Riesling, Trezillon, Wrotham Pinot.


Web links

Commons : Pinot meunier  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Schwarzriesling  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Ferdinand Regner , Karel Hanak, Cornelia Eisenheld: Directory of Austrian quality wine varieties and their clones , 2nd edition 2015, HBL and BA for WB, Klosterneuburg.
  2. Frank Schoonmaker: The Wine Lexicon. The wines of the world. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1978, ISBN 3-596-21872-1 , p. 156, article Müllerrebe , there a reference to the synonyms Schwarzriesling and Pinot Meunier
  3. ^ Association of dwarfism and floral induction with a grape 'green revolution' mutation Boss & Thomas, Nature 416, pp. 847-850 (April 25, 2002).
  4. Genetic Relationships Among Pinots and Related Cultivars Regner, Stadlbauer, Eisenheld & Kaserer, Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 51: 1: 7-14 (2000).
  5. a b K. Anderson, NR Aryal: Database of Regional, National and Global Winegrape Bearing Areas by Variety, 2000 and 2010, Wine Economics Research Center, University of Adelaide, December 2013 (first revision April 2014) (second revision May 2014) (third revision July 2014).
  6. German Wine Institute : Statistics 2015/2016 . Mainz 2014 ( ( Memento from July 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 722 kB ]).
  7. a b c German Viticulture Association (2016): 19th Special Report 2016 - Planted vineyards 2015
  8. a b c d State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate (2016): Statistical reports - Planted vineyards 2015. Bad Ems, CI - j / 15, reference number: C1073 201500, ISSN  1430-5070 .
  9. a b c d e f g h Federal Statistical Office (2016): Agriculture and Forestry, Fisheries. Agricultural land use - vineyards. Technical series 3 series 3.1.5.
  10. Pinot Meunier in the database Vitis International Variety Catalog of the Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (English), accessed on February 29, 2020