Regions and places in Tolkien's world
The English writer JRR Tolkien equipped the books that he let play in the world he had invented with detailed information about regions and places . He drew maps and calculated distances so that a fairly detailed picture of the geography of this world can be drawn.
The world of Arda, described by JRR Tolkien in several novels , is one of the most complex world creations in fantastic literature. Some of the places on Arda - especially on the continent of Middle-earth - are so well known that they are common property of popular culture . In the different languages and scripts in Tolkien's world there are different names and designations for many places.
The following list refers exclusively to the novels and writings of Tolkien, which rewrite the history of Arda. The most important sources are the novel The Lord of the Rings (1954/55) and the stories from the Silmarillion , most of which are set on the continent of Middle-earth . The three-part film adaptation of the novel The Lord of the Rings presents some contexts differently.
If there are deviations between the two German translations of The Lord of the Rings, the spelling of proper names and some other contexts is based on the older one by Margaret Carroux , as this was created in collaboration with Tolkien. The differences to the translation by Wolfgang Krege are indicated in some cases.
The origin of the word for the places and areas of Tolkien's world goes back to the elven languages Sindarin and Quenya , which he developed . Names in the areas Arda, Aman and Númenor come from Quenya, those in Middle-earth predominantly from Sindarin. For numerous terms, equivalents or translations into the languages of other peoples of Middle-earth are given. In some places and regions, the name changes to Middle-earth over the course of the ages.
Arda 'the kingdom' is the Elvish name for the entire world that is comparable to our earth. It is often referred to as the "Kingdom of Arda", the kingdom of Manwe , the most powerful of the Valar . First of all, Arda is just a face , an idea in the spirit of Ilúvatar . It is only the music of the Ainur that Arda creates in reality, but only as a dark “raw form”.
“[…] And they saw a new world, and it arched itself in the void and was carried by the void, but it was not like you. [...] and it seemed to live and grow. "
Some of the Ainur ask Ilúvatar to be allowed to descend into the world in order to shape it as they saw it in Ilúvatar's vision . These Ainur are called Valar 'the mighty' and Maiar 'the beautiful'.
The Valar reside on the island of Almaren in the middle of a huge land mass, similar to our main continent Pangea . The first light for Arda is provided by the two lamps Illuin and Ormal, which the Valar set up on large pillars in the north and south. However, they are soon destroyed by Melkor, who turned away from the rest of the Ainur and built his own fortress Utumno into the mighty Iron Mountains. The pillars topple over and shatter the country into several continents, including Aman and Middle-earth. While Aman is later illuminated by the light of the two trees Telperion and Laurelin from Valinor, Middle-earth and the other continents remain dark until the sun and moon are created. But Melkor also destroys the trees. However, the Valar succeed in creating the sun and the moon from their last two fruits.
At the end of the Second Age in the history of Arda, the nature of the world changes fundamentally again: until then a disk, it is now transformed into a sphere with the fall of Númenor and the rapture of Aman. That is why all roads in the Third Age are “crooked”, except for the “straight road” that leads to Valinor in the “West”.
Cuiviénen 'Water of Awakening' is a bay of the inland sea Helcar from the time before the sun and moon in Middle-earth. There the first elves , Ilúvatar's firstborn children, wake up from their sleep the moment Varda creates the stars of heaven. Since the stars are the first thing they see, the Elves love the starlight more than anything else. Hence they are also called Eldar 'the star people'. “El”, “see” or “see” is said to have been the first spoken word of the Elves. The place is described as follows:
“There he finds a place, deep in a valley, bordered by pine-covered slopes; its bottom is the wide expanse of water of a pond, and its roof is twilight, studded with Varda's stars. There Orome heard the Eldar awakening, and in all the songs this place is called Koivie-néni or the Waters of Awakening. "
Koivie-néni is the older name for Cuiviénen, it can also be found on the early map I Vene Kemen 'the ship of the world', which Tolkien made. In Cuiviénen the Elves spend many years on their own and develop their first language. Soon they are discovered by Melkor , who spreads fear and terror among them and kidnaps some, from which he presumably breeds the orcs . The Vala Orome later found them in Cuiviénen and stayed with them for a while. After his return and his report in Valinor , the Valar decide to bring the Elves to Aman. They call the leaders of the Elves, Ingwe , Finwe and Elwe , as ambassadors. These then move a large part of their tribesmen to follow them to the west.
Cuiviénen is also devastated by the war of the Valar against Melkor. There is no going back, which is why the Elves often wistfully remember it.
Inland Sea Helcar
The Helcar Inland Sea is the largest inland sea in Arda. It is located in the northeast of Middle-earth, where the mountain with the Illuin lamp once stood. The Cuiviénen lake is said to have been a bay in this sea. It is created by melting the pillar that carried the Illuin lamp and is destroyed at the end of the First Age. It is located roughly in the area where Mordor and Rhûn are later to be found ; the sea of Rhûn represents its northernmost branch. The extent of the inland sea is about 1 million square miles.
Aman 'Blessing' is the westernmost of all the continents of Ardas and the place of residence of the Valar and most of the Maiar . On Aman is Valinor , the homeland of the Valar, which is often incorrectly equated with the entire continent.
The continent is protected from Melkor by various magic and geographical boundaries (mainly in the east), for example the steep mountain range of the Pelóri 'surrounding heights' and the shadow seas . The Pelóri are piled up further in later ages, and the Valar also lay the so-called 'Enchanted Islands' off the east coast of Aman. After the fall of Beleriand in the War of Wrath at the end of the First Age, Belegaer 'the Great Sea' widens, the Helcaraxe 'Ice Breakup', a connection between Aman and Middle-earth consisting of Malm ice , disappears. By transforming Arda from a disk into a sphere at the end of the Second Age, Aman is raptured from the world and can only be reached via the "straight path" through the swan ships of the Elves .
The highest mountain of Amans is the Taniquetil 'high white peak', located about halfway along the Pelóri from north to south. From its summit Manwe and Varda overlook the whole of Arda. The highest mountain south of Taniquetil is the Hyarmentir , Südausschau '. The dark spider Ungoliant lives in a ravine nearby . The Hyarmentir is used to monitor the areas south of Valinor, because these are shielded from the light of the two trees by the pelóri and are therefore in complete darkness.
Only the Valar, Maiar and Elves are allowed to enter Aman. When the Númenórer under Ar-Pharazôn 'the shining one' at the end of the Second Age attempt to attack Valinor for the sake of immortality and enter it, they are buried under stones during the transformation of the world, their island Númenor sinks again into the sea and is henceforth from the survivors of this downfall only called Atalante 'the fallen'.
Valinor is a sub-area of Amans, which lies on the western borders of the world. At the time of the founding of the new home of the Valar, this world still has the shape of a disk, analogous to the worldview ascribed to the Middle Ages. Valinor is bounded to the east by a range of mountains called Pelóri 'pile mountains' or 'circumferential heights'.
Within these boundaries, the Valar (gods) found their only city, Valmar or Valimar , 'Valarheim'. It is huge and magnificent. At the gates of the city is the hill Ezellohar, on which Yavanna's song causes the two trees of light to grow, called Laurelin ('gold water') and Telperion ('the shimmering silver'). Varda collects its fruits in buckets and forms the stars from them. Near the hill there is the Máhanaxar , the ring of fate, which serves as a meeting place and the Valar Court, similar to thingsteads the Germans.
The Pelóri rise steeply towards the sea, but have gently sloping slopes to the west, which border on the fertile meadows and plains of Valinor. To the east the coast is barren and dry in the shadow of these mountains. This coast narrows towards the south. The north, where the land meets the glaciers of the Helcaraxe ('ice axis'), is covered by thick clouds of fog and is called Oiomúre ('Eternal Darkness') or Araman (the land 'next to Aman'). This is also the place where the souls of the deceased wait for their rebirth for the Dagor Dagorath , the 'battle of all battles' at the end of time. The Pelóri originally did not have a passage, but when the Elves come to Valinor and Osse Tol Eressea , the 'Lonely Island' anchored in the Bay of Eldamar ('Elbenheim'), the Valar open a passage, the Calacirya (' Slit of Light '), through which the light of the two trees shines to this island. To the south and north of this crevice, the land lies in the dark. Eruman ('Lonely Plain') is located south of the Pelóri and is dark and dangerous. Ungoliant , the 'shadow spider ', resides there , and Melkor (Morgoth) seeks refuge and support there.
The Valar plant gardens in Valinor and live in large areas where they build palaces. Valmar is not the only place of residence of the Valar, but serves as their capital. In the far west, on the edge of Ekkaia, the 'outer sea' (also Néni Erúmear, 'the surrounding sea'), at the gates of the night are the halls of Mandos . This is where the inhabitants of Middle-earth get after their death. Nienna's halls are also nearby . The Oromes forests are south of the city of Valmar, with the Yavannas meadows to the west. In the gardens of Lórien ('dream land') on an island in the lake Lórellin ('dream water') live Irmo and Este as well as Maia Olórin, who is later sent to Middle-earth as Gandalf . Tolkien writes in the Silmarillion about the land of Valinor:
“It was blessed, for the immortals dwelt there, and nothing withered or withered, and flowers and leaves were not stained in this land, nor was anything that was spoiled or sickened; for even the stones and the water were holy. "
So one can compare Valinor with the earthly paradise of the Christian world of ideas.
It is reserved for the Elves to live next to the Valar in Aman. The Teleri already set up in the age of the trees the swan harbor Alqualonde on the coast of the Bay of Eldamar , Elvenhome 'or Elbenis', the Calacirya at the eastern end, light gap'. The Calacirya is the only gap in the Pelóri and thus the only way inland. The light of the two trees shines through the pass until it is destroyed as far as Alqualonde.
Exactly in the middle of the Calacirya lies the Noldor town of Tirion 'the looking one' on the hill Túna. In its center is the Mindon Eldaliéva 'Tower of the Elves', also called Mindon Kórin 'Tower of Kor', the tallest building of the Elves in Aman.
At the end of the First Age, after the fall of Beleriand , Elvish refugees who came from there built the town of Avallóne 'near Valinor' on the island of Tol Eressea . Tol Eressea is the floating island where the first Elves were shipped to Aman and which was fortified by Osse in the Bay of Eldamar.
Númenor 'West Land', called westernis by the people , is a large, star-shaped island. The Valar gave this island to the Edain (humans) after the end of the First Age in gratitude for their help for the Elves in the fight against Morgoth. Andor , the original name, was created after the war of wrath in the middle of the Belegaer, the great sea, a little closer to Aman than to Middle-earth : hence the name Westernis . Elros , the first king of Númenor, is a half-elf like his brother Elrond , but, unlike Elrond, has chosen a mortal life.
“In the middle of the land rose up a high and steep mountain, which was called Meneltarma, the pillar of heaven, and on the top was a place dedicated to Eru Ilúvatar, open and without a roof; there were no other temples or shrines in the land of the Númenórians. The tombs of the kings were built at the foot of the mountain, and nearby on a hill lay Armenelos, the most beautiful of all cities, and there stood the tower and citadel that Elros had built. "
In the citadel of the capital Armenelos 'Royal Sky Fortress' there is an offshoot of the White Tree of Valinor. Númenor has several harbors, Andúnië 'the West' and Eldalonde 'Elven Harbor', where Elven ships often landed in the beginning, are in the west. Rómenna 'to the east' is in the east of the island. There is also the southern port city of Nindamos , 'water- ringed castle'.
On Númenor, all journeys from place to place are made on horseback, because Númenórian men and women enjoy riding and love their horses. That is why they treat their horses with respect and keep them in spacious stables. Even at a young age, horses are trained to hear and answer calls from far away. In ancient stories it is even said that in cases of great affection between people and their riding horses, the animal can be summoned by the power of their thoughts in an emergency.
Sauron , who allows himself to be captured by the last and most powerful Númenórian king Ar-Pharazôn because he cannot defeat him in battle, seduces the Númenórians to rebel against the Valar and to demand access to Valinor in order to participate in immortality. Ar-Pharazôn then prepares for war and sails to Valinor with a huge navy. When his army enters the Immortal Lands, the Valar temporarily lay down their rule over Arda, and Ilúvatar changes the structure of the world: the army of the Numenorers is buried under collapsing mountains, the fleet and the entire island of Númenor sink into the sea. Only the faithful of Númenor under the leadership of Elendil and his sons Isildur and Anárion , who have remained loyal to the Valar and have withdrawn to ships on the east coast of the island, survive the sinking and are driven to Middle-earth with their ships. In Middle-earth they found the empires in the exile Arnor and Gondor and are known as Dúnedain . Sauron himself loses his body through the destruction of Númenor, but as a mighty Maia he survives the downfall and can reappear in Middle-earth at a later point in time.
Númenor is later referred to as Atalantë 'The Fallen' ( Quenya ) or Akallabêth ( Adûnaic ) or Mar-nu-Falmar 'the land under the waves'. It recalls Plato's Atlantis several times ; The Edain rule a large part of Middle-earth for a time, are a strong sea power, have a large temple in the middle of their capital and at the end go under with their island. Even the Quenya name Atalantë is reminiscent of Atlantis.
The idea for the story arose from Tolkien's friendship with the writer CS Lewis . Lewis said they'd have to write the stories they like themselves; this gave rise to the idea that Lewis should describe a space journey and Tolkien a time travel. Lewis' story was later published under the title Out of the Silent Planet , Tolkien's story, on the other hand, was never quite finished, but - apparently almost inevitable for Tolkien - connected to his self-made universe . From this came Númenor.
Middle-earth is the most famous and best-described region of Tolkien's world. It is the setting for the novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings as well as the Quenta Silmarillion , the main part of the Silmarillion . However, Tolkien only describes a small, northwestern part of the continent, while the rest remains largely unknown.
All places between the Inner Sea in the east and the great sea Belegaer in the west are called Middle-earth. It is also called Endor or the Hinnenlande and is the largest continent of Ardas . Also Beleriand is in the First Age of Middle-earth part.
The well-known part of Middle-earth is dominated in the Third Age mainly by the people of Gondor and Arnor and later also by Rohan . The realms of the Elves , which still claimed a large part of the land mass in Beleriand's time, are little more than small wooded areas or wooded valleys such as Lórien , Rivendell or Thranduil's caves in the northern Bleak Forest in the Third Age . The time of the elves in Middle-earth is over, and most of them will sail west to Aman by the end of the age . The dwarf population is concentrated in the Blue Mountains , the Halls of Khazad-dûm , the Erebor and the Iron Mountains . The hobbits initially live on the Anduin River , later almost all of them live in the Shire and the nearby Bree in the heart of Eriador .
These so-called Free Peoples are opposed to the kingdom of Angmar in the north, the southern Bleak Forest with the Dol Guldur fortress and Sauron's land of Mordor with the Barad-dûr fortress. Isengard, which originally belonged to Gondor, also became an enemy of the free lands of Middle-earth under the apostate sorcerer Saruman towards the end of the Third Age.
In Beleriand 'Balar-Land, Land of the Elves' the story of the Elves in the First Age takes place mainly. After Feanor and the Noldor because of their terrible oath from the Blessed Valinor have been banned, they fight together with the native to Beleriand same people of the Sindar in centuries of war and in five major battles against the creatures of Morgoth until the Valar them in the War of Wrath to Help come and Morgoth will be banished forever into the outer void, into nothingness.
Beleriand is the western part of the continent of Middle-earth, a vast land on both sides of the Sirion River 'the great river', which is formed by the sea of Belegaer 'the great sea' to the west and south and the Ered Luin 'Blue Mountains' to the east and Ered Wethrin 'Shadow Mountains ' and Ered Gorgoroth 'Mountains of the Great Horrors' in the north. The name Beleriand is said to have originally meant "Land of Balar" and was only used for the land around the Sirion estuary, where Balar is a name of the Sindar elves for the Maia Osse. Later it is used to describe the whole country south of the Ered Wethrin and west of the Ered Luin, including Dorthonion 'pine country' and Nevrast 'this side coast'. The Sirion River divides it into East and West Beleriand. This is where those Elves settle who want to follow the Vala Orome to the west at the beginning of the First Age, but do not want to leave Middle-earth towards Aman . These elves are called the Sindar. Later, the elven tribes of the Laiquendi 'Green Speakers' and the Noldor were added.
The long chain of hills of Andram 'long wall' separates the sparsely populated south from the north, where the princes of the Noldor settle. In the center of Beleriand are the realms of Doriath 'Land of the Fence' and Nargothrond 'Cave Fortress on the Narog'. To the north of the Ered Wethrin and Ered Gorgoroth mountains, there is the Ard-Galen 'Green Area', which is known as ' the Choking Dust' after it was burned in the Battle of the Fire, Anfauglith . Behind it are the Iron Mountains, where Morgoth sets up his second fortress, Angband.
Few people come to Beleriand: at first only those from the three houses of the Edain . Some enter the service of elves, others settle in Estolad 'the camp', some, like the Haladin, in the forest of Brethil 'beech', and many move on to the northern lands, where they are allies in the fight against Morgoth are particularly welcome.
In the shocks of the world caused by the war of anger, Beleriand sinks into the sea, only one piece remains: the Ered Luin (the border to Eriador ) and part of the land to the west of it: Ossiriand 'Land of the Seven Rivers ', known as Lindon ' Land of Lindar, Land of Music '. Gil-galad and Círdan settle here . Most of the other elves of the Noldor and Sindar tribes are finally going to Aman, where the Noldor are now, after the destruction of the Silmaril , welcome again despite Feanor's oath. The faithful Edain are given Andor , 'the land of the gift', which they call Númenor 'the western home'. With this the First Age ends.
Angband 'Eisenkerker, -hölle' is the name of an extensive tunnel and cave system far in the northwest of Beleriand. The mountain range of the Ered Engrin 'Iron Mountains' forms a natural boundary between the habitable lands of Beleriand and the regions of eternal cold that resemble the Arctic of our world. Melkor's first fortress, Utumno ('underworld'), is located in these mountains . This is destroyed by the Valar, but partially rebuilt and expanded by Melkor.
“And Melkor also built a fortress and an arsenal not far from the north-western coast of the sea to be able to withstand any attack from Aman. This castle was under the command of Sauron, Melkor's governor; and she was called Angband. "
From the rubble created in the process, his servants pile up the mountain group Thangorodrim 'Mountains of Compulsion ' over the southern gates of the fortress. These mountains can be seen far beyond the Ard-Galen / Anfauglith plain. Hidden in Angband, Morgoth wears the Silmaril in his iron crown. Beren and Lúthien are the only residents of Beleriand who can penetrate into the deepest hall of the fortress in which Morgoth sits, recapture one of the Silmaril and leave Angband alive.
Ard-Galen / Anfauglith
Ard-Galen 'Green Area' is a large, grassy plain in northern Beleriand. It is north of the highlands of Dorthonion and south of Angband and the Thangorodrim 'Mountains of Compulsion '. In the west it borders on the Ered Wethrin, in the east on the Ered Luin. After the Dagor Aglareb 'Glorious Battle', Angband was besieged for nearly four hundred years. The siege ends after 395 years when Morgoth releases the first of the great dragons and rivers of fire flow down from the Thangorodrim. Burn the whole plain - and with it all besiegers. This is how Ard-Galen becomes the Anfauglith 'Ashes dust' or 'Land covered with ash'. This attack by Morgoth is called the Dagor Bragollach 'Battle of Sudden Fire'.
Until the fall of Beleriand, the Anfauglith remains a desolate wasteland, except for a large hill that orcs pile up from the corpses, armor and weapons of all fallen after the Nirnaeth Arnoediad 'Battle of the Countless Tears'. The hill is very high and visible from afar. It is called Haudh-en-Ndengin 'Hill of the Slain ' or Haudh-en-Nirnaeth 'Hill of Tears'. Only on this hill is tall, green grass growing again.
Doriath 'Land of the Fence' is a large Sindar kingdom in the center of Beleriand. It was built by the Elven King Thingol and the Maia Melian on the land that was previously called the Eglador 'home of the exiles' before the First Age of the Sun. After the first battle in the Wars of Beleriand, Melian places the so-called Belt of Melian around Neldoreth, Region and Nivrim, the inner regions of Doriath. However, Thingol also makes claims to lands outside the Belt, such as Brethil and Dimbar.
The capital of the empire and residence of Thingol and Melian is the subterranean cave system Menegroth 'the thousand grottoes', which the dwarves build from the east for the Elves. Opposite the gates is the beech Hírilorn 'tree of the mistress', in which Lúthien , Thingol's daughter, lives.
While Thingol is friendly to House Finarfin and the dwarves , he forbids House Feanor and the humans to enter Doriath. When he learns the truth about the return of the Noldor to Middle-earth, he also forbids the use of the common language Quenya in his realm, where Sindarin is now generally spoken.
Protected by the power of Melian and the caution of Thingol, Doriath was not involved in the great battles of the Wars of Beleriand. Its borders are always defended by Document Longbow and his border guards. In the end, Doriath is drawn into the curse of the Noldor, because Thingol demands one of the Silmaril as a bride price for his daughter Lúthien. Because of this jewel, worked into the Nauglamír collar on his behalf by the dwarves from Nogrod, Thingol is slain by the dwarves in Menegroth. After his death, Melian leaves Middle-earth, and Doriath is no longer protected by her banishing belt. When Dior, Thingol's grandson, is slain by the sons of Feanor, the Elves flee Doriath; the survivors go to the beginnings of Sirion.
Brethil 'beech' is a forest northwest of Doriath. It is surrounded by the rivers Teiglin 'Grenzwasser' and Sirion 'great river'. In the middle of Brethil is the mountain Amon Obel, 'mountain of the fortress', on which Ephel Brandir 'high fence of Brandir' is located, a fortress of the Haladin, the people of the Haldad family, later also called the 'Haleth House' after his daughter.
Gondolin 'Hidden Rock' is a city of the Elves in Beleriand, which the Noldor prince Turgon founded to create a safe place for his people. The construction of the city of Gondolin took around 52 years. The Echoriath ('Surrounding Mountains') are described as a gigantic volcanic caldera and the Amon Gwareth ('Mountain of Watch') as a second volcanic cone. A lake could have formed in the caldera after the volcano went out. The result was a river that paved a narrow path through these towering mountains, some of which ran in a tunnel. When the city was founded, the lake and river had already dried up.
"The hands of the Valar themselves ... had wrestled the great mountains asunder, and the sides of the rift were sheer as if ax-cloven."
"The hands of the Valar themselves ... had gathered the great mountains together, and the sides of the trench were steep as if they had been hewn with an ax."
Gondolin itself is bright white and is located on a hill in this valley called Tumladen ('lowland'). The valley can only be reached through this secret access, which begins in the dry river bed and leads through the gorge from the city down to Taleg Uthwen ('valley exit'). The path is blocked by a series of seven gates and is constantly guarded: the gates are made of wood, stone, bronze, wrought iron, silver, gold and steel. Once you get into the valley through this path, you can only reach the main gate of the city via a single staircase, because the slopes of the hill are very steep and wet, so that it is impossible to climb the hill. The city therefore originally bears the name Ondolinde ('the rock of the music of the water').
In the end, the protective measures are still insufficient, so that after 400 years of peace, Gondolin falls as one of the last bastions of the Elves against Morgoth . Through the betrayal of Maeglin, the dark ruler learns the secret of the location of the city he has long sought. Gondolin is then destroyed by an army of orcs , dragons and balrogs and King Turgon is killed. Turgon's daughter Idril Celebrindal ('the lovely and beautiful woman with the silver foot') escapes with her husband, the man Tuor , their son Earendil and some Noldor through a secret tunnel, which Bad Uthwen is called 'the escape route'. On this way they carry everything with them that the Gondolindrim , the 'inhabitants of Gondolin', have left of their city.
According to Tolkien himself, the legend of Tuor and the fall of Gondolin is the oldest of all stories from Middle-earth. He wrote its first version in 1916/17. Some motifs in the story of the fall of Gondolins are reminiscent of the fall of Troy in Homer's Iliad .
Hithlum 'Nebelland' is a cold but beautiful plateau in the north of Beleriand. It is bounded in the west by the Ered Lómin and in the east and south by the Ered Wethrin. The mountains of Mithrim divide their southern half into the areas Dor-lómin in the west and Mithrim with Lake Mithrim in the east. First settled only by a few Sindar, it is chosen as a residence by Fingolfin and Fingon after the return of the Noldor to Middle-earth . Later the Edain from the Hador family also settled there.
Nargothrond is the name of the Noldor kingdom of Finrod Felagunds in West Beleriand and also refers to the large underground fortress on the Narog River, which is the main castle and palace of this kingdom. The caves in the Andram range of hills, originally discovered by the Noegyth Nibin ' little dwarves ' and called Nulukkhizdîn , are being developed for Finrod by the Ered Luin dwarves. Finrod is therefore given the nickname Felagund 'Höhlenfürst'. The fortress is modeled on the Menegroth underground palace in Doriath. Later, Túrin had a wide bridge built over the Narog, which made it easier for the Elves to cross the river with large armies in the fight against Morgoth. When Morgoth counterstrikes, however, the bridge enables the dragon Glaurung to penetrate Nargothrond and conquer the city with its treasures.
Tol Sirion 'Island of the River' is an island in the Sirion River at the narrowest point of Sirion Pass between the Shadow Mountains (Ered Wethrin) and the Surrounding Mountains. There the Noldor prince Finrod built the fortress Minas Tirith (not to be confused with the capital of Gondor in the Third Age). After building Nargothrond, he has his brother Orodreth guard them to protect the hinterland from the hordes of Morgoth . Two years after the Dagor Bragollach , the fourth battle of Beleriand, the fortress is taken by Sauron and henceforth called Tol-in-Gauroth 'Island of the Werewolves'. From his tower, Sauron can watch over the entire valley of Sirion. So he captures Finrod, Beren and their companions when they want to steal the Silmaril from Angband , and begins to feed them to his wolves. Lúthien , accompanied by the great dog Huan , destroyed the fortress ten years later with her wall-breaking chants and freed Beren. The werewolf Draugluin , a servant of Sauron, is killed and Sauron chased away. A little away from the rubble, on a green hill, they bury King Finrod Felagund, who fell in battle. Until Beleriand sinks at the end of the First Age, the island is called Tol Sirion again.
In the First Age, two large dwarf dwellings are known in the Ered Luin 'Blue Mountains' in East Beleriand. They are called Glaubost 'Great Fortress' and Nogrod 'Hohlburg' - in Khuzdul (dwarfish) Gabilgathol and Tumunzahar . While the dwarves frombelost are known for their stonemasonry and dig the caves of Menegroth 'a thousand grottoes', Nogrod has specialized in the manufacture of weapons. In addition, both dwarf tribes are known for their blacksmithing. Together they make the Nauglamir collar , which is given to Finrod Felagund and later becomes the property of Thingols von Doriath. Nogrod dwarves steal the collar after working in the Silmaril procured by Beren and Luthien on Thingol's instructions, and kill Thingol. In the following confrontation, the dwarves from Nogrod devastate Doriath, but are defeated on the way back to their homeland by an army of elves led by Beren and his son Dior.
Well-known residents are the armorer Telchar from Nogrod, the creator of the blades Angrist and Narsil , and Azaghâl, the prince of Belost, who fell in the fight against the dragon Glaurung . Belost and nogrod are believed to be destroyed in the fall of Beleriand. The dwarves settle in new regions of the Blue Mountains , many also go to Khazad-dûm .
In addition to these two main dwellings, there is a ' bald mountain' in Amon Rûdh , the dwarfs call it the scarlet dog 'bald head', and a dwarf dwelling for the little dwarfs in the raised bogs of West Beleriand between the rivers Sirion and Narog. The small dwarf Mîm and his sons still live there as the last inhabitants. After Mîm is captured by Túrin , this cave becomes a base for Túrin and his followers in their fight against the orcs. After Beleg has joined them, the level around the mountain is Dor-Cúarthol , the country called by Bow and Helm '.
Eriador 'Lonely Land' is located in the northwest of the continent of Middle-earth between the sea in the north and the river 'Grauflut' in the south. In the east it is bounded by the Nebelgebirge , in the west by the Blue Mountains. The Mist Mountains separate Eriador from the valley of the Anduin River. Eriador includes, among others, the Shire, the Breeland, the hilltop hills , the Old Forest, Minhiriath 'Land between the Rivers', the Weather Mountains , the Mosquito Moors , Angmar 'Eisenheim' and Rivendell.
The largest river in Eriador is called brandy wine, Elvish baranduin 'golden brown river'. It rises in the Abendrotsee and flows into the sea in the south. It largely forms the eastern and southern borders of the Shire. It can only be crossed over the Brandyweinbrücke, the Sarnfurt or by ferry.
The country includes several vegetation and climate zones and is around 900 km × 900 km in size.
When the descendants of Elendil fall out, the land is divided and the power of the Númenórians declines. Finally, the three partial kingdoms Arthedain, Rhudaur and Cardolan are destroyed together in a battle near the Wetterspitze by an army from Angmar under the Witch King . The Witch King is later driven out with the help of Gondor , but Arnor does not recover from it. The long war shattered the country, and many of its inhabitants are dead or have fled. The country is overgrown with the exception of the Shire , Breeland and Rivendell.
Arnor 'Kingdom of the Kings' is the northern and higher-ranking of the two Dúnedain kingdoms founded by Elendil and his sons in 3320 ZZ in Middle-earth. The first capital is Annúminas, where one of the seven palantíri is kept.
In its heyday, Arnor encompassed the whole country between the Gwathló-Bruinen and the Lhûn Fjord. In contrast to Gondor , however, Arnor is not granted a blessing, and with the death of Isildur near the sword fields in 2 D. Z. the decline of the Dúnedain of the north begins.
After Earendur's death in 861 D. Z., the kingdom is divided among the three sons of the king, creating the sub-kingdoms of Arthedain, Cardolan and Rhudaur. The kingship in Arthedain can last longest. In 1974 D.Z., the country and the new capital Fornost are conquered by the witch king of Angmar . The last king of Arnor, Arvedui, must flee. Círdan sends him a ship, but it is trapped in the ice in 1975 D. Z. and sinks; Arvedui is drowning. With him the two Palantíri of Amon Sûl and Annúminas are lost. The heirs of Arvedui survive, however, and the royal line is retained in the subsequent period. You now hold the rank of tribal prince of the Dúnedain of the north. The 16th chief is Aragorn II . After the victorious end of the War of the Ring, he becomes the first king of the reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor under the name Elessar Telcontar .
Annúminas 'Tower of the West' is Arorn's first capital. It was founded at the same time as Gondor in 3320 Z. Z. by Elendil and survivors from Númenor. Before Arnor 861 D. Z. fell, the farm was relocated to Fornost, the largest city in the country.
While Isildur and Anárion land with five ships at the mouth of the Anduin in the later Gondor, their father Elendil is driven into the Gulf of Lhûn with four ships. There he is warmly received by Gil-galad . In consultation with this he moves east and establishes the northern kingdom of the Dúnedain there. As the location for his capital, he chose the southeastern shore of the large, deep and fish-rich Abendrotsee, north of the area that centuries later will be called the Shire. He calls this city Annúminas.
Even in its heyday, the population hardly rises above ten thousand, because the Kingdom of Arnor has far fewer people than, for example, Gondor.
The Abendrotsee probably got its name from the enchanting sunsets over the low, rugged mountains of the Emyn Uial, which - soaked in red light - are reflected on the lake. The hinterland to the east and south is rich in rainfall and fertile. Over the years it has been settled extensively with farmsteads in order to provide for the population well. Overall, Arnor is a peaceful, agricultural country with a few towns, but many hamlets, villages and individual farms. However, Annúminas and Arnor regularly experience long, cold and snowy winters in which the lake is likely to freeze over. So life can get very tough and the population is slow to grow. Such weather conditions still prevail in the times of Frodo's grandfathers , which are reflected in the northern Shire and in which the hungry wolves in particular are seen as a threat.
Annúminas remains the undisputed royal seat until the tenth king, Earendur, dies in 861 D. Z. In the succession disputes that now follow, the empire is divided into three parts: Arthedain, Rhudaur and Cardolan. Probably in the course of this division or the subsequent unrest, Annúminas, now inhabited by only a few people, will be abandoned. Around 1300 D. Z. the court moved together with the Palantir to the northeastern Fornost. The strategically more favorable location of Fornost, which is easier to defend, also plays a role. Because the shadow of the Witch King of Angmar has been falling ever darker on Arthedain for some time .
The towering ruins of Annúmina are henceforth only used as accommodation by a few hikers or shepherds as long as the northern kingdom exists. After the end of 1974 D. Z. there is complete silence in the area, which is only interrupted by a few brave hobbits from the Shire to the south and some rangers.
One of the three northern palantíri is kept in the city's tallest tower . He is lost in the fall of the kingdom.
Annúminas was rebuilt in the Fourth Age by King Elessar ( Aragorn ) on a smaller scale and made the northern capital and residence of the reunified kingdom. Fornost, however, will not be rebuilt.
The scepter of Annúminas, once a symbol of royal dignity, is kept in Rivendell after the destruction of the three northern kingdoms . Elrond himself gives it to King Elessar at his coronation in Minas Tirith .
Fornost Erain 'the north fortress of the kings' is founded by Elendil in 3320 Z. Z. , declared the capital around 861 D. Z. and destroyed in 1974 by the Witch King of Angmar. It is located on the southernmost hill in the mountain range called the 'Northern Heights', right at the end of the north-south road that once connected the kingdoms of Arnor 'King's Land' and Gondor 'Stone Land'. The hobbits from the Shire call it 'King's Norburg' and the street 'the green path'.
Rivendell , Elvish Imladris , Engl. Rivendell is an Elven settlement founded by Elrond. It is located in the western foothills of the Nebelgebirge on the eastern border of Arnor. Due to its sheltered location in the deep gorge of the Bruinen River, Rivendell is the safest retreat for the Elves north of Lórien. In addition, as the bearer of the Vilya ring, Elrond contributes significantly to the power and protection of Rivendell. A large number of Sindar and Noldo elves live in the settlement. Many travelers find refuge and protection here.
In "The Hobbit" Rivendell is referred to as "The Last Hospitable House" or simply "Elrond's House".
In Rivendell, after the discovery that the ring found by Bilbo Baggins is the One Ring of Sauron, a council known as "Elrond's Council" is held. There it is decided what to do with the ring and the community of the ring is established.
Based on a picture that Tolkien made of the Rivendell valley and other evidence, the Swiss Lauterbrunnen valley , which Tolkien hiked through in 1911, is considered to be a model for Rivendell.
Eregion ("Land der Hulstbäume ", Hulsten auf Westron , English Hollin ) was an empire of the Noldor between the rivers Glanduin and Bruinen, founded by Galadriel and Celeborn around 750 of the Second Age and by Noldor, who did not follow the War of Anger Aman returned, was inhabited. The capital was East-in-Edhil. Because of their artistry, the Noldor had previously had closer contact with the dwarves , previously with those from Nogrod and Belost, and at that time maintained close relationships with the dwarves from Moria .
After Galadriel and Celeborn left Eregion, Celebrimbor , son of Curufin and grandson of Feanor , became regent of the empire. At that time, Sauron also appeared in disguise under the name "Annatar" and instructed the elves of Gwaith-i-Mirdan, the jewelery smiths based in Eregion, in the art of ring-making . Under his direction the seven rings of the dwarfs and the nine rings of men were forged, but Celebrimbor made the three rings of the elves alone. When Sauron forged his ring of rulers, the Elves recognized him and removed their rings (later the seven and nine), but Celebrimbor's rings remained free from his influence. Sauron then attacked Eregion, captured the seven and nine rings, killed Celebrimbor and destroyed Eregion. The surviving Noldor fled to Lindon or Imladris .
In the Third Age, Eregion was an uninhabited land that the community of the Ring traversed on its journey.
The name Shire (in the original: The Shire = "The Gau") refers to an area of about 18,000 square miles in Eriador between the River Baranduin (brandy wine) and the Far Heights. The area is originally part of the Northern Kingdom of Arnor . With the fall of Arnor, people are gradually leaving the area. In 1601 D. Z. brothers Marcho and Blanco from the get Hobbit -Sippe the Falbhäute (also dun called) of Argeleb II, the High King of Arnor, permission to re Bree from the lands west of the Baranduin with a large crowd of hobbits settle. The only consideration is the obligation to look after the streets and crossings, to recognize the king and to support his messengers. This means that the hobbits of the Shire are formally subjects of the king in Fornost, but they are largely independent. The fertile land was given the name "Shire" from the first hobbit settlers. From this taking possession of the hobbits begins: The 1st year of the Shire calendar (A.Z.) is the year of the settlement of the Shire and corresponds to the year 1601 D. Z.
After the new colonization by the hobbits, the Shire becomes a fertile and flourishing area again. It is divided into four administrative districts: north, south, east and west quarters. Within the quarter there are in turn individual clan countries, such as B. the Tukland of the Tuk family. Outside the four quarters, two other areas are counted as part of the Shire: the Bockland in the east, also called Ostmark, and the area up to the Tower Mountains in the west, which is called Westmark and came to the Shire in 1452 A.Z.
The Great East Road, which begins far beyond the Nebelgebirge and leads over Rivendell and Bree to the Grauer Anfurten, runs right through the Shire. Michelbinge, the capital of the Shire, lies on it. The sole mayor has his seat there. He is elected every seven years on Midsummer's Day on the Freimarkt on the White Heights. The gendarmes are called Landbüttel and, like the postal service, report to the mayor. There is also a strong border guard.
After the Battle of Fornost, which sealed the fall of the Northern Kingdom, the hobbits consider the Shire to be their property. The Great Plague raged across the country in 37 C.E. However, the population is quickly recovering from this blow. For over a thousand years the hobbits can then continue to develop their quiet rural life and their idiosyncrasies. In the battle of Grünfeld in the North Quarter in 1147 AZ, a gang of orcs is driven away. In the years 1158–1160 A.D., thousands fell victim to the ominous long winter and the subsequent famine (days of need). In the Shire, however, there is generally a temperate, mild climate. Severe winters in which the brandy wine flow freezes over are very rare.
The apparent security that the hobbits enjoy at the time of the renewed ascent of Sauron in Middle-earth, they owe - without their knowledge - to the protection of the rangers (see Aragorn ). At this time, most of Middle-earth's hobbits lived in the Shire, which is now the most densely populated area of Middle-earth, along with the Breezes and southern Gondor . The second and last battle, which is fought in the Shire, takes place after the end of the War of the Ring in 1419 A. Z. in Wasserau and ends with the victory over the Dunlanders of the disempowered magician Saruman . The killed enemies are buried in a nearby old sand pit.
After the War of the Ring, King Elessar (Aragorn) made the Shire an independent sub-area within the United Kingdom. In this context, he enacts a law that no member of another people may enter the Shire without the consent of the hobbits. It also extends the country by about 50 kilometers to the west to the Tower Mountains, on which three old Elven towers stand. The southernmost of these “White Towers” is called Elostirion ; A palantir was once kept on it. From the Elven Towers, if you look west, you can see all the way to the Graueruren.
Building culture and professions
Originally all hobbits by their own admission lived in caves they call smials. At the time of the War of the Ring, however, only the poorest and richest sections of the population cling to this custom: some because they cannot afford anything else, others because it is considered "chic" to live like the ancestors - albeit with that Luxury and the achievements of time. The majority of hobbits, on the other hand, have long lived in wooden, stone or brick houses. It is said that the custom of building houses and stacks originated from the people of Bruchs am Brandywein in the east quarter.
In addition to the farming of the productive soil, there are the famous tobacco plantations in the southern district with their center around the village of Langgrund. In addition, there are the usual professions of a pre-industrial age such as miller, blacksmith, rope maker, wheelwright and other trades.
One of the most famous settlements Hobbiton (original Hobbiton ), the home of Bilbo and Frodo Baggins and Sam Gamgee . Other well-known settlements are Wasserau and Bockenburg near the Old Forest , where the famous Brandybock Castle is located.
The place where the slain Dunlanders from 1419 are buried is known as the battle pit. The hobbits killed in battle find their final resting place in a grave on the Bühl, where a large memorial stone will later be erected.
The natural eastern border of the Shire is formed by the Brandywein river , which is fed in the north by the great sunset lake and flows south. Further south the river makes a sharp bend to the west and then flows into the sea. Therefore, the river also forms the southern border of the country. In this bend is the Sarnfurt (Steinfurt), through which the most important route from the Shire to the south runs. The most important river crossing in the east is the ancient stone arch bridge over which the Great East Road leads to Bree. This bridge dates back to the heyday of the Northern Kingdom long before the Hobbits settled the Shire.
The narrow area of Bockland, located between the brandy wine in the west and the old forest in the east, is also part of the Shire. It extends from the stone arch bridge to the mouth of the Weidenwinde forest river, where the town of Hagsend is located. The famous Brandy Castle is located at the largest town in Bockland, Bockenburg, directly on the Brandywein. Towards the old forest, the Auenland is secured by a well-tended hedge - the Hohe Hag - which extends from the stone arch bridge to the town of Hagsend. The ferry across the Brandywein near Bockenburg enables the hobbits to escape from the mounted ring spirits in the “The Companions” section of the “Lord of the Rings”.
In preparation for his departure from the Shire, Frodo moves to Bockland as a pretense after he has sold Bag End to the Sackheim-Baggins. With Merry Brandybock's help he buys a cottage in the country in Krickloch behind Bockenburg and has his furniture brought there from Hobbiton.
The northern border of the Shire is formed by the Emyn Uial (Abendrotberge) mountain range , behind which lies the Abendrotsee with the capital and residence of Annúminas, which was rebuilt by King Elessar . The western border is formed by the northern moors, the northern Far Heights, the Tower Mountains and the Blue Mountains adjoining to the south with the old province of Harlindon (South Lindon). In the Blue Mountains lies the old dwarf town ofbelost with its mines. There may still be some dwarfs living there at the time of the War of the Ring.
To cross the Auenland from the western border to Brandywein in the east, it takes about 40 hours (approx. 200 km), for the north-south crossing about 50 hours (approx. 250 km).
Gondor ( Sindarin for 'Steinernes Land') is a land that was originally bounded in the north by the River Angren ('Iron'), the Fangorn Forest and the River Limklar. In the east it is partly bounded by the Anduin, but also by the Ephel Duath ('shadow mountains') to Mordor. The border in the south probably follows the course of the river Harnen ('south water'), there South Gondor (Harondor) merges into Haradwaith ('south areas'). In the west and south-west lies the sea. The area west of the Lefnui ('the fifth') on the west coast up to the Angran was never used by the Gondorians for settlement purposes, only a guard station on the coast was constantly manned. The capital of Gondor is initially Osgiliath , later Minas Tirith . The area north of the Ered Nimrais ('White Mountains') is given to a horsemen from the north because they came to the aid of Gondor in the war. From then on this area is called Rohan. Only Anórien ('Sonnenland') remains in the territory of Gondor.
In the third age of Middle-earth, at the time when the stories The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings take place, Gondor is divided into several administrative districts, similar to counties or duchies:
- Anórien , which also houses the capital Minas Tirith ('Tower of Watch') with its small harbor Harlond ('South Harbor'), borders Rohan and maintains a kind of communication system with beacons to this kingdom. These make it possible to send a request for help quickly over long distances. The beacons can be imagined similar to the Bismarck towers. There are seven of these beacons between Halifirien, on the border with Rohan, and Minas Tirith. Halifirien is the secret place where Elendil's grave lies and where the alliance between Rohan and Gondor was concluded by the ruling steward Cirion and the leader of the Rohirrim, Eorl . The seven places with beacons:
- Amon Dîn ('Silent Mountain' or 'Mountain of Sparks') is the easternmost point and is located on a mountain between the Drúadan Forest ('Wildermannsholz') and Minas Tirith .
- Eilenach ('Regenspitze') is a very high Pointed Mountain within the Drúadan Forest.
- Nardhol ('head of flame' or ' dome of fire ') is located on the western edge of the Drúadan forest.
- Erelas ('Lonely Lookout ') is a little further west of it.
- Min-Rimmon ('winter peak') is apparently always covered with snow.
- The penultimate of the beacons is located at Calenhad ('Place of Light' or 'Green Place'). The name is reminiscent of the earlier area name Rohan, Calenardhon ('grassland')
- Halifirien ('mysterious forest') as the last station of the beacon already bears a Rohirrischen name. The mountain on which the beacon was erected is called Amon Anwar ('Mountain of Worship').
- Lossarnach. ('Steinbrechland') is a small principality near the capital Minas Tirith. The name refers both to the many white flowers ( saxifrage plants ) that grew here, as well as to the quarries with their white marble.
- Ithilien ('the land of Ithildur' or 'moonlight land') has long been considered the granary of Gondor. Due to its proximity to Mordor ('Black Land'), from which it is only separated by the Ephel Duath ('Shadow Mountains '), it is very often attacked and is gradually abandoned by the people who live in or in Anórien Capital seek refuge. It divides into north and south Ithilien and lies between the Anduin and Mordor.
- Lebenin ('five waters' or 'five river country') is so named because this area is crossed by five large rivers. The Erui ('first'), Celos ('spring river'), a tributary of the Sirith ('the flowing '), the Serni ('stony') and the Gilrain ('glittering meander '), which border the village Ernil educates. The eastern border is formed by the Anduin, on which the large port city of Pelargir ('port of the royal ships ') is located.
- The town of Dol Amroth ('Hill of Amroth') is located on a mountain, which in turn is part of a mountainous peninsula (also known as the promontory ) on the southwestern coast of Belfalas . It is the seat of the princes of Dol Amroth, who rule from a high fortress overlooking the sea. The princes are said to have an Elvish ancestor.
- The area of Dor-en-Ernil ('home of the prince') probably belongs to the territory of the princely city of Dol Amroth. and lies east of this.
- Lamedon ('Echoland') is located north of Dor-en-Ernil on the foothills of the Ered Nimrais ('White Mountains'), at the source of the rivers Ringló ('cold tide') and Ciril. ('Splitter').
- Anfalas (' Long Beach ') covers an area between the Morthond River ('Black Ground ') in the east and the Lefnui. ('Fifth') in the west. To the south it borders with its shallow, sandy coastline to the sea and to the north to the Ered Nimrais. The name of the river Lefnui indicates that Gondor's territory includes five major rivers, the Harnan in the south, the Anduin, the Serni, the Morthond / Ringló and the Lefnui, all of which flow into Belfalas Bay.
- Belfalas ('Mighty Coast') is located between Dol Amroth and the island of Tolfalas. extensive coastal strip.
- Harondor ('South Gondor') is located south of the mouth of the Anduin between the rivers Poros ('the ashy') and Harnen. ('Südwasser') and is only very sparsely populated.
After the fall of Númenor , Gondor was founded by the surviving Númenórern, the Dúnedain, together with Arnor further north. The first two kings, Elendil and Isildur, are rulers of both Arnor and Gondor, after which the lines separate. The Arnor dynasty never dies, although the empire soon goes under. Gondor's power, on the other hand, grew for a long time, but his royal dynasty was disappearing, and Truchessen then ruled Gondor. The last stewardess before the return of the king ( Aragorn , descendant of the kings of Arnor) is Faramir , son of Denethor , if only for a few days.
Gondor has actually been in a permanent state of war since its inception. Nevertheless, the Dúnedain of the south succeed in continuously expanding their borders for almost a millennium and a half - until finally the decline begins due to internal conflicts (the so-called “clan dispute”) and external influences (Pest 1636 D. Z.). Gondor has to pull back its limits step by step. A heavy blow for Gondor is the siege of Minas Ithil in 2000 D. Z. by the armies of Mordor and its conquest in 2002. In the War of the Ring, Sauron finally also takes Osgiliath before he marches on Minas Tirith.
Rohan , called Riddermark by its inhabitants , is a kingdom north of Gondor. The area was once part of Gondor and was originally called Calenardhon. Its borders run in the north on the edges of the Fangorn Forest and the course of the Limklar River. The Anduin ('Long River') forms the eastern border in its course from the mouth of the Limklar to the drainage swamps. In the south the White Mountains (Ered Nimrais) form the border of the empire, in the west the river Isen ('Iron') with the so-called “Gate of Rohan”. This “gate” is located at the point where the Nebelgebirge and the White Mountains are closest to each other. The small area west of this gate, between the Isen and the White Mountains, is called Westmark and is also claimed by Rohan.
Rohan is sometimes also the land of horses or riders country called. The people of Rohan, the Rohirrim, call themselves Eorlingas , which is derived from their first leader, Eorl. It is known for its skilled riders and horse breeding. The Mearas, which can be ridden by the king alone, are the noblest of all horses and go back to Eorl's horse Felaróf, which also serves as the heraldic animal for the Rohan kings. At the time of the War of the Ring, the most famous horse in this line is Gandalf's horse, Schattenfell. Rohan's army consists mainly of cavalry units , the so-called éored, while infantry is only used to protect settlements and castles.
The Riddermark is divided into six administrative units . The four southern areas are, in order from west to east:
- The Westmark is a small area west of the Rohan Gate.
- The Westfold lies between the Isen and Schneeborn rivers and closes the royal city of Edoras , the Klammbachtal and the Hargtal. a. Important places in the Westfold :
- Edoras: Brego, the successor of Eorl the boy, relocates the royal seat and the headquarters of the Riddermark from Aldburg to Edoras. Edoras is located on a small hill in the south of the country, which is in front of the White Mountains. On its summit stands the Golden Hall Meduseld ('Seat of the Mets'), the residence of the king, completed by Brego in 2569 D. Z. The hill is protected by a wooden picket fence. The barrows of the kings of Riddermark lie on either side of the road outside the city gates.
- Helm's Gorge is a gorge in the south that leads below the Thrihyrne (a mountain formation) into the Ered Nimrais. The Klammbach flows at the bottom of the valley. At the upper end of the valley are the entrances to the caves of Aglarond ('glitter grotto'). The ravine wall, at one end of which is a fortress, the Hornburg, runs across the gorge . If the fortification is besieged, the defenders have little chance of escaping, as there is no other access to the gorge other than a mountain path. Helms Klamm is the common name for the entire defense system including the Hornburg. The gorge is named after Helm Hammerhand (2691–2759 D. Z.), the ninth king of Rohan, who died there after defending it over the winter of 2758–2759 D. Z. It is the defense center of the Westfold. Next to Dunharg , it is the most important refuge in the Kingdom of Rohan. The fortress itself was built by Gondorian craftsmen.
- The Hargtal in the White Mountains is one of the most famous valleys in Rohan due to the Dunharg Fortress located there. The Hargtal is overshadowed by the mountain peaks of the Irensaga at its exit, the haunted mountain Dwimor, which recedes somewhat in the east, and the Starkhorn enthroned at the end of the valley. From the Starkhorn, which is covered with eternal ice, the Schneeborn flows into the valley until it empties into the drainage. Unterharg is located at the valley exit, directly at the valley exit Hochdorn. On the plateau of the old fortress, directly at the foot of the Spukberg, lies the mysterious Dimholt Forest. From here a tunnel leads through the White Mountains to Gondor on the other side of Mount Dwimor. Dunharg is a fortified refuge above the Hargtal. It is first used by Gondor and later by Rohan and, next to the Hornburg in Helms Klamm, is the most important refuge for the Rohan people. Dunharg is easy to defend because it can only be reached via a narrow road that serpentines up a steep cliff. At every bend there are ancient statues ("Puckelmänner"), which were erected by the so-called Púkel people and represent their images.
- The Ostfold with the former royal city of Aldburg. extends from the Schneeborn to the Firienwald.
- The Fennmark. extends from Firienwald to Meringbach on the border with neighboring Anórien.
The two northern areas are
- West Emnet. lies to the west of the Entwasser, north of the Schneeborn and extends up to the Fangorn Forest .
- East Emnet is the area between Entwasser up to the Limklar in the north and the Anduin. These include the east wall of Rohan , an extension of the Emyn Muil, as well as the hill country Wold and unpopulated wasteland.
According to their own tradition, the Eorlingas rider people originally came from the kingdom of Rhovanion in the east of the Mirkwood, which was conquered by the wagon drivers (Ostlingen). In fact, the Eorlingas are related to the Beorningern and the people on the western edges of the Mirkwood by origin. Their oldest historically tangible settlement area is in the northern Anduintal between the Carrock in the north and the Schwertelfeldern in the south. Even at this time they love the plains, horses and riding skills. However, after the Angmar War, during the reign of Prince Léod, the Eorlingas' settlement grounds were almost exhausted.
Eorl the boy, the son of Léod, follows in 2510 D. Z. a call for help from friends of Gondor , who are harassed by wild men and orcs on their northern border . The attack can be repulsed with the help of Eorl's cavalry army. The headess of Gondor offers Eorl the province of Calenardhon, which until then belonged to Gondor and later Rohan, to thank Eorl for the assistance he had provided. Only Isengart , located in the west of the province, with the old Orthanc tower, remains under the administration of Gondor's Truchessen. Eorl's people move from their residential area in the Anduintal, which has become too narrow, and give the province a new name, "Riddermark". In Gondor the country will be called "Rohan", its inhabitants " Rohirrim " (horse lords).
Eorl becomes the first King of the Mark and takes his seat on a green hill at the foot of the White Mountains. Here, on Grosse Weststrasse in Ostfold, he founds the first royal city of the Eorlingas, Aldburg.
In 2758 D. Z. Rohan is attacked by intruders from the east and at the same time by Dunlanders from the west. At this time Gondor is waging war with corsairs on all coasts and can therefore initially not send any help. The Riddermark is overrun and the newly founded royal city of Edoras is taken by the Dunlanders. The population holed up in the Hornburg fortress in Helms Klamm and had to survive a harsh winter there. Eventually, however, the empire is recaptured with Gondor's help.
At the time of the War of the Ring, Théoden , son of Thengel, was King of Rohan. At the beginning of the War of the Ring, Rohan is attacked by a strong army from Isengard. The population and the king retreat to Helms Klamm, the Hornburg is about to fall during a night attack. The decisive turning point in this battle is brought by a strange forest, which overnight fills and blocks the valley of the ravine behind the attackers. Saruman's army is crushed between Erkenbrand's troops under Gandalf's leadership, which rushes to aid from the west in the morning, Theoden's failing troops and the Entic forest. Saruman and his fortress Orthanc, which had been converted into an armory, are later rendered harmless with the help of the Ents .
When Rohan's cavalry army rushes to the aid of the beleaguered city of Minas Tirith, King Théoden falls in the battle of the Pelennor. His nephew Éomer succeeds him to the throne.
Role models in the real world
In many aspects of Rohan's culture, Tolkien appears to have orientated itself on the Germanic tribes of the Anglo-Saxons and Goths, as well as the Scandinavians. Like the Ostrogoths, the Rohirrim are an equestrian culture that migrates south and falls under the spell of a more developed society. In the case of the Ostrogoths it was the Byzantine Empire , in the case of the Rohirrim it was the Empire of Gondor.
The conflicts between the Rohirrim and the Dunlanders, later influenced by Saruman, who, according to Tolkien, are the indigenous people of the country of Rohan, seem to have been modeled on the wars between the Celts and the Anglo-Saxons immigrating to Britain .
Other names were formed using Old English words:
- Theoden: from þēoden ("leader of the people, king")
- Éothéod: from eoh ("war horse ") and þeod ("people")
- Gríma: probably from gríma ("mask", "helmet", "spirit") or grim (ugly)
- Eorl: from eorl ("nobleman")
- Théodred: from þeod ("people") and ræd ("council")
- Ceorl: from churl ("free man"), compare in German "guy"
At least one proper name of the Rohirrim is derived from the Scandinavian culture:
- Gamling: ("old man") by gamla (old)
Isengard (in the English original: Isengard , also in the translation by Wolfgang Krege ) is the name of the Númenorischen fortress Angrenost 'iron fortress ' in the Rohan language . Located in a valley north of the Rohan Gate, it was the seat of the sorcerer Saruman at the time of the War of the Ring . In the middle of a circular wall with a gate guarded by two round towers stands the Orthanc , a tower made of almost indestructible pitch-black stone. The area surrounded by the rampart is overgrown by trees before Saruman's betrayal, but these fell victim to the axes of his servants when Saruman used the land for an armory and a self-bred army. From Isengard, Orcs and Uruk-hai attack the plains of Rohan in the War of the Ring and carry out the attack on the fortress of Helm's Deep . But then the Ents attack Isengard. They divert the Isen River, flooding the armories and dwellings of the Orcs and Uruk-hais. After the water has run off, the cleaned earth is replanted by the Ents (guard forest).
Isengard does not belong to the Kingdom of Rohan, but is administered from Gondor. Saruman, too, was initially only a guest of Gondor before he changed Isengard for his own purposes.
Linguistically, the name Isengard comes urgermanischem word collection and is a composite of Isen (u. A. Old Icelandic ISA [r] n "iron") and gard (from Old Icelandic garðr "Wall fenced field," see to the latter meaning. Dt. Garden ). Isengard means something like "iron wall", which also corresponds to the meaning in Westron of Middle-earth (see also the meaning of the name Isen in Westron). As a professor of linguistics, Tolkien had a great interest in linguistically integrating the mythology he wrote down in a secular European context.
Minas Tirith 'Tower of the Watch' is a fortified city in Gondor founded by Anárion at the end of the Second Age . It lies against the mountain range of Mindolluin, the easternmost mountain of the White Mountains. From 1640 D. Z. it is the capital of Gondor . Since then, the kings of Gondor have resided here and, after the interruption of the royal line, the deputy chiefs. Originally called Minas Anor 'Tower of the Sun', the city was renamed Minas Tirith after the fall of Minas Ithil in 2002 D. Z. The city consists of 7 rings, each surrounded by a wall built around the watchtower rock. The great gate of the fortress is to the east. The tombs of the kings are at the level of the 4th ring, in the Rath Dínen ('Silent Street'). In the center, three more rings rise up to the citadel, which is 700 feet above the Great Gate. The city is nicknamed the "White City" because it is built from white stone. It is called "Mundburg" by the Rohirrim . Thanks to its strong fortifications, the city is never taken by an enemy. At the gates of the city lies the Pelennor, a plain of fertile farmland that extends to the Anduin River. It is enclosed by a wall with guarded gates, the Rammas Echor ('enclosing wall'). The decisive battle of the armies of Mordor against Gondor and his allies takes place on the Pelennor in the War of the Ring. Sauron's forces suffer a severe and unexpected defeat when the riders of Rohan and the troops of the southern feudal lords of Gondor under the leadership of Aragorn Minas Tirith come to the rescue during the siege of the city . Théoden , King of Rohan, is killed in this battle. Even the invincible general Mordor and leader of the ring spirits, the witch-king of Angmar , is destroyed.
Osgiliath 'Citadel of Stars', founded around 3320 Z. Z., is the first capital of Gondor. Located halfway between Minas Anor and Minas Ithil on both banks of the Anduin, it is initially the joint seat of government of Isildur and Anárion. Thanks to its inland port , it is also becoming the trading center of Gondor.
Osgiliath is an overwhelming sight at the time of his greatest power. The Dúnedain are not generally known for humility, but Osgiliath towers far above all other cities and buildings. The Anduin has a width of about half a mile here, which is spanned by the famous stone arch bridge. The bridge can at least be crossed by smaller boats with inlaid masts. Houses and towers stand on the bridge, including the mighty "Tower of the Star Dome". This tower is crowned by a star dome in which the Great Palantir is kept. The dome, which gives the whole city its name, corresponds to a black or dark blue hemisphere with large, applied stars of gold and silver. Presumably the Hall of Kings is also in the same building.
The seventh king of Gondor, Ostoher, had the nearby town of Minas Anor (later renamed Minas Tirith) renewed, which the following kings then preferred as a summer residence over Osgiliath. Until 1640 D. Z. Osgiliath remained Gondor's capital and royal seat.
Disputes over the succession to the throne in Gondor bring much devastation to Osgiliath in a civil war in 1437 D. Z. The very popular Eldacar (maiden name: Vinitharya), son of the Northern Men ambassador Valacar (and grandson of the Gondor king Minalcar - Rómendacil) and the northern human king daughter Vidumavi fights with Castamir, the closest blood relatives of the royal family of Gondor, for the crown. In the end, Eldacar is besieged in Osgiliath by the allies of the ardent and cruel Castamir. Hunger and the overwhelming power of the enemy finally allow him to dare a successful outbreak. But the inhabitants of the city, which is on fire in every nook and cranny, remain a lot of hardship and misery. The famous “Tower of the Star Dome” has been destroyed; the palantir disappears in the floods of the Anduin. The large bridge over the Anduin is partially destroyed. Their restoration is of great importance for the future position of the city in the empire.
In 1636 D. Z. the city was ravaged by the plague (the Black Death ), which killed many residents. Most of those who survive by fleeing do not return, and in 1640 D. Z. the royal court is moved to Minas Anor.
In 2475 D. Z., in the last years of Truchsessen Denethor I, orcs invade the province of Ithilien for the first time from Mordor and overrun the country and Osgiliath, which is still inhabited by a few people. The son of Denethor I, Boromir (after whom Boromir, son of Denethor II. At the time of the War of the Ring, is named), defeated the Uruk Horde, but Osgiliath is now finally in ruins, the bridge over the Anduin is destroyed.
The last remnants of Osgiliath, in which the troops of Gondor were entrenched during the War of the Ring, were captured and largely destroyed by the orc organizations besieging the city in June 3018 (eastern half) and March 3019 (western half).
Minas Ithil 'Tower of the Moon' is originally a city and fortress belonging to the Kingdom of Gondor in a valley of the Shadow Mountains on the eastern edge of the province of Ithilien. The city was founded after the fall of Númenor in 3320 ZZ by Isildur , who chose it as his residence. One of the palantíri is kept in the moon tower, built on the highest square in the city . A bridge provides the only access is to the city. It was after the first defeat Sauron's right on the border of his kingdom Mordor built to secure the lying above the city pass to Mordor.
A well-developed, paved road leads from Osgiliath to Minas Ithil. At the so-called Wegscheide, this road crosses the major trade and military route that runs through Ithilien in a north-south direction. A royal monument has been erected at the intersection.
The road leading to Minas Ithil continues past the city over the Nameless Pass of the Shadow Mountains to Mordor. Not far from town is the steep Cirith Ungol spider pass, inhabited by the creature Shelob , which Frodo hits on his way to Mordor. This pass is secured by its own fortress. This fortress is also called "The Tower of Cirith Ungol".
2002 D. Z. Minas Ithil is conquered by the Nazgûl and is given the name Minas Morgul , 'Tower of (black) magic' or 'Tower of the Magician'. At the same time, the sister city Minas Anor is renamed Minas Tirith .
A pale, ghostly light now shines around the walls of the fortress. The top of the moon tower turns slowly back and forth like a huge, ghostly head. At the beginning of the bridge to the city, remotely human-like but disfigured stone heads are placed. The king statue at the crossroads is desecrated by orcs. Mortal beings fear this city, which is completely in the shadows. The valley is called the Ghost Valley, the river running through the valley is named Morgulduin , and the road to the pass to Mordor is known as the Ghost Road .
Terror and war now emanate from Minas Morgul until Ithilien is completely depopulated. Only the rangers of the south make this country unsafe for enemies for some time, but in the course of time they are pushed back further and further and finally no longer dare to get close to the ghost town.
In the War of the Ring, part of the huge army that carried out the attack on Osgiliath and the siege of Minas Tirith, under the leadership of the Witch King of Angmar, whose seat is Minas Morgul, breaks out from there.
After the victory over Sauron, the victorious people do not repopulate the city of dread, but destroy it.
The Argonath 'Stones of the Kings', also called the Gates of Argonath or Pillars of the Kings , are two monuments in the form of huge stone columns with the carved images of Isildur and Anárion . They stand on both sides of the Anduin River , at the northern tributary to the Nen Hithoel . They were built in 1340 D. Z. on behalf of Rómendacil II and mark the northern border of Gondor at that time . Both figures wear a helmet and a crown. They keep their left hand raised in a gesture of warning while they carry an ax in their right hand.
On their journey south on the Anduin from Lórien, the community of the ring passed the Argonath on February 25, 3019 D. Z.
Harad 'south', or 'south country', denotes the lands south of Gondor and Mordor , across the river Harnen, which were subjugated by Númenor in the Second Age . It is roughly divided into Nah-Harad and Far-Harad . Harad does not form a unified territory, but is composed of many small empires that wage war with one another and some of which are allied with Sauron . One of these realms, probably the most dangerous, is Umbar , formerly a city of Gondor , which has a huge fleet of ships. The lands of Harad therefore pose a constant threat to the southern borders of Gondor towards the end of the Third Age, at the time of the War of the Ring.
Mordor 'Black Land' is the name of the country east of Ithilien and south of the Rhûnwaith. It is bordered by the Ered Lithui ' Ash Mountains ' in the north and the Ephel Dúath 'Shadow Mountains ' in the west and south.
After the war of wrath and the exile of Morgoth, Mordor becomes the new breeding ground for evil in Middle-earth. Here, from the middle of the Second Age onwards , Sauron built his empire and his main fortress Barad-dûr , a large tower in the northwest of Mordor. After the fall of Númenor, Sauron retreats to Mordor again.
The main entrance to Mordor leads through the Cirith Gorgor ("ghost crevice") at Udûn ("Hell") in the north-west of Mordor, at the southern end of the Walstatt. It is secured by the Morannon 'Black Gate' and two large watchtowers ("The Teeth of Mordor"). Two important roads lead to this gate: the Mordorstrasse from the direction of Rhûn (northeast) and the well-developed trade and military route from Ithilien and Harad (south).
There are also several passes into Mordor, which are monitored by the fortresses and towers of Gondor after the victory over Sauron by the "Last Alliance" of elves and humans. The most famous, the Nameless Pass, leads from Ithilien above Minas Ithil (later Minas Morgul) over the shadow mountains.
Shortly before Minas Morgul , a path branches off from the pass road, which leads over the steep 'Cirith Ungol' spider pass . This path is guarded at the top by a fortress that was manned by orcs at the time of the War of the Ring. The giant spider Shelob lives in the caves below the pass .
The northernmost and least known pass leads from the Durthang fortress coming from Northern Lithuania over the northwest corner of the Shadow Mountains and the Ash Mountains to Mordor. In addition, the Númenorans build the guard systems Narchost and Carchost in front of the ghost crevice. Far to the south on the Nargil Pass, which connects Khand and Nurn, there is also a fortress of Gondor from the 11th century.
In the fires of Mount Doom (Orodruin), which rises from the plain of Gorgoroth, Sauron forges the One Ring that rules all other rings during the Second Age . This is destroyed at the end of the Third Age in that very mountain after the ring was brought there from the Shire.
To the east and south of Mordor lie large countries in which Sauron recruits his huge human armies for the War of the Ring (Nurn, Rhûn and Harad). In the War of the Ring, he gathered his forces on the plain of Gorgoroth.
Barad-dûr 'Dark Tower' is Sauron's fortress in Mordor . It is at the end of a long spur of the Ash Mountains on the northern edge of the country. Barad-dûr overlooks the entire plateau of Gorgoroth. A road leads northwest from the Dark Tower to the Black Gate, about 100 miles away. Mount Doom is about 30 miles to the west. The road to it runs from the western entrance of the tower over an abyss, which is spanned by an iron bridge, and then on over the Gorgoroth Plain to the east side of Mount Doom.
The Dark Tower is an impregnable fortress. It is made of adamantine , its gates of steel. With its many walls, towers, battlements and essays, it forms a huge black monument of evil. The tallest tower is a mighty iron crown, from which Sauron's eye pierces clouds, stone, steel and flesh with his gaze. There are many armories in the windowless tower.
Sauron began building the Dark Tower around 1000 Z. Z. when he made Mordor his main base.
After the victory of the “Last Alliance” over Sauron, Barad-dûr is razed. Its foundations are preserved, however, because the power of Sauron, which flowed into the One Ring he forged, continues to exist.
Sauron returned to Middle-earth in 1050 D. Z. and built a new fortress on the southern edge of the Mirk Forest, Dol Guldur. In 2941 D. Z. Sauron secretly returns to Mordor and shows himself there again openly from 2951 D. Z. At this time he also begins rebuilding the Dark Tower. He also keeps a palantir there, which is probably the stone captured by the Nazgûl in Minas Ithil.
Gollum is captured on the border of Mordor in 3017 D.Z., taken to the Dark Tower and tortured, but later released.
With the destruction of the One Ring in the fire of Orodruin at the end of the Third Age, Sauron's power is finally lost and the Dark Tower collapses.
Durthang 'Dark Oppression' is built by builders from Gondor after the victory over Sauron at the beginning of the Third Age. The fortress, which was initially built as a castle, secures a nearby pass, among other things, to prevent the return of surviving servants of Sauron to Mordor. Large units of troops can be accommodated in the fortress.
Durthang lies in the mountains of the Shadow Mountains (Ephel Duath) at a point where a narrow ridge protrudes east from the main chain. This ridge meets the Ash Mountains (Ered Lithui) after about 50 miles . Halfway through it is broken by the Isenmünde (also: Isenmaul), the inner gate of Mordor. The fortress stands on one of the lower peaks, probably exactly at the origin of this ridge.
It is noteworthy that Gondor not only built a military fortress here, but a castle. You can probably live quite well in the seemingly peaceful area of the Gorgoroth Plain. It is possible that the plains will change into a steppe landscape over the centuries. In the 11th century of the Third Age, during the heyday of Gondor, the fortresses around Mordor were reinforced and new ones were built, especially in Nurn. But just a century later, vigilance in the now incredibly rich but sluggish Gondor is waning again, and the fortresses are beginning to deteriorate. Nobody still believes that an evil shadow could ever fall on Middle-earth again. After the Great Plague in 1636 at the latest, the last important surveillance points in Mordor and Nurn were given up. There is still a profitable peace.
After Sauron took possession of the land again, Durthang will be renewed and probably also used as a control center for attacks on Ithilien: Behind the fortress there are still old secret paths from Gondor's heyday, which are only known to a few at the end of the Third Age. They cannot be seen from Ithilien, so not even Gollum can find them, who therefore considers Cirith Ungol to be the only pass into Mordor (or at least claims to be).
Gorgoroth 'Valley of Terror' is a plateau in northwest Mordor. It extends from the Ered Lithui and the Udûn valley in the north to the mountain range emerging from the Ephel Dúath in the south and from the Ephel Dúath and Minas Morgul in the west to the mountain range emerging from the Ered Lithui in the east. Sauron's fortress Barad-dûr is located on the Gorgoroth, as is Orodruin, the Mount of Doom .
Nurn is the largest part of Mordor. It lies on the shores of the Nurnen Sea and makes up roughly the southern half of Mordor. Nurn is the "granary of Mordor". The people living there are economically exploited and enslaved by Sauron.
After the War of the Ring, in the Fourth Age, Lithlad and Nurn were combined into one kingdom under the rule of the people of Nurn.
The Wilderland lies on the eastern side of the Hithaeglir, the Nebelberge. Rhovanion is only sparsely populated. At times, some regions of the Wilderland belong to Gondor .
The center of Rhovanion is the Mirkwood , populated by orcs in the south and wood elves in the north. In the northeast of Rhovanion is Esgaroth on the long lake . Esgaroth trades with the northerners who still live south of the River Urgent. A little further north is Thal, which is inhabited by northern people, but also by dwarfs. Thal is destroyed by the dragon Smaug , but rebuilt after his death under Dain Eisenfuß. Dorwinion is on the eastern edge of Rhovanion. The Dorwinrim, relatives of the Rohirrim, live there.
For the “Hobbit”, Rhovanion was ultimately created by mirroring Beleriand. If you swap the cardinal points east and west and keep north and south, the foggy mountains correspond to the blue mountains, the Anduin to the Gelion, the night forest / gloomy forest to the forest of Doriath with its wood elves, who have long been fighting with the dwarfs, and finally the underground dwarf settlement on Lonely Mountain Nargothrond. It was only when the “Lord of the Rings” was written that both geographies were combined.
Esgaroth and Thal
Esgaroth 'Schilfsee' is a town of the people on the Langen See in Rhovanion, which is built on wooden stakes in the Langen See. Due to its favorable location and the Long River as a transport route, trade with the kingdom of the wood elves from the Mirkwood is flourishing . After the city was destroyed by Smaug in 2941 DZ, it was rebuilt with part of the gold from the dragon's hoard .
After Smaug's death, there is again a king in Esgaroth, who until then was ruled by authoritarian mayors and the council. The first king is Bard, the warrior who killed the dragon Smaug with his arrow, and the royal dignity is passed on in his family for a very long time.
Thal was founded around 1856 of the Third Age by the northern people north of the Long Lake at the foot of Mount Erebor (Sindarin for 'lonely mountain') and quickly became a "rich" city through their trade and knowledge exchange with the dwarves from Erebor , which is known for its special craftsmanship and magical toys, until it is completely destroyed by the dragon Smaug in 2770 DZ. After the destruction of the dragon Smaug, it is rebuilt by Bard, the dragon slayer, in 2942 DZ, where he resides as King of Thal and Esgaroth.
Rhûn 'east' was the area in the east of Middle-earth, southeast of Dorwinion. In its center lay the great inland sea of Rhûn, possibly a remnant of the sea of Helcar. In the First Age, the Cuiviénen and Hildórien lands must have been on its east bank, where humans and elves awoke. To the east was the Red Mountains (Orocarni), where four of the seven dwarf families came from. In the Third Age, the region and the steppes to the east were home to the Easterlings, balchoth and chariot drivers, former servants of Morgoth and later in the service of Sauron. Sauron hid there for the first few years of this age. The blue wizards Alatar and Pallando went there and stayed there.
Little is known about the land southeast of Mordor. It bordered Rhûn to the northeast and Nah-Harad to the west. The people of Khand were horsemen like the people of Rohan and were called variags. Khand was under the influence of Mordor. In 1944, they attacked Gondor together with the wagon drivers of the east and later supported Sauron in the War of the Ring.
Mountains and massifs
The Mist Mountains (Sindarin: Hithaeglir ) is a long north-south mountain range in Middle-earth that separates Eriador from the valley of the Anduin River. It stretches for about 900 miles from Carn Dûm in the north to the Gate of Rohan in the south, where the Misty Mountains and the White Mountains come close. One of the most famous mountains in the Nebelgebirge is the Caradhras 'Rothorn' with the Rothorn Pass , under which the mines of Moria are located. In the gorge of the river Lautwasser (Bruinen) on the west side of the mountains lies Rivendell , on its east side u. a. the Golden Forest of the Lothlórien Wood Elf Kingdom and the Fangorn Forest . In a valley in the very south of the mountains, near the gate of Rohan, is Isengart, which belongs to Gondor, with the Orthanc tower.
Moria (Sindarin for 'black chasm' or 'abyss') is also called Hadhodrond "dwarf grotto ". In dwarfish (Khuzdul) they are called Khazad-dûm for “dwarf halls, home, pit, binge”; in the Noldorin : Casarrondo ; in Westron: Phurunargian . Moria is the largest and for a long time the most important city and mine of the dwarves in the middle fog mountains . It lies in the interior of the mountains Caradhras 'Rothorn', Celebdil ' Silberzinne ' and Fanuidhol ' Wolkenkopf ', and extends from the west to the east gate for at least 40 miles. Moria was founded by Durin I himself in the First Age .
At the beginning of the Second Age, Mithril (Moria silver) was found in the mines of Moria . This started the friendship with the Noldor in Eregion . But the dwarves dug too deep in their search for gold and mithril and in 1980 D. Z. woke a balrog from Morgoth. The demon from the Old World killed King Durin VI. and a year later his son Náin I. This initiated the decline of Moria, his people fled or were destroyed. In 2989 D. Z. a large group of dwarves from Erebor under Balin attempted to repopulate; However, this failed after just five years. At the time of the War of the Ring, the western entrance to Moria is secured by a secret door, while the eastern entrance is open.
Moria is crossed by the Companions on their way to Mordor in January 3019. In the archive chamber with Balin's tomb, the companions are attacked by orcs, whose superiority they can only defend themselves briefly. First you escape through a secret passage. On their way they meet the Balrog. Gandalf stands in his way to enable his companions to escape. He succeeds in bringing down Durin's bridge and causing the Balrog to plunge into the depths of Moria. However, he himself is dragged into the abyss.
Moria may have experienced a renaissance after the fall of Sauron; in any case, at the beginning of the Fourth Age, the dwarves forged new gates of mithril and steel for the city of Minas Tirith. To do this, they must at least have maintained mines in the old dwarf city, since Moria silver was nowhere else to be found.
The Schattenbachtal (Sindarin: Nanduhirion ; Khuzdul: Azanulbizar "Valley of the shady brooks") runs from the east gate of Morias in a northerly direction to the Schattenbachsteig and up to the Rothornpass. To the southeast of the valley is the mirror lake (Khuzdul: Kheled-zâram ) and the source of the river Silberlauf (Khuzdul: Kibil-nâla ), which was set in a stone well. The great battle of the dwarves against the orcs in the Schattenbach valley took place here in the year 2799 D. Z. Since the dwarves had cut down all the trees to burn the dead of this battle contrary to their tradition, the valley remained bare from then on. The companions of the ring community came to the Schattenbach valley after the fall of Gandalf and their subsequent escape from Moria.
Carn Dûm was the main fortress of the Witch King of Angmar , who was to play an important role again during the War of the Ring. Carn Dûm was at the northern end of the Mist Mountains . The Lord of the Nazgûl established his rule around 1300 and became known as the Witch King of Angmar. Carn Dûm was his residence and he stayed there for many years with his depraved creatures without conducting major military operations. It was not until 1974 that the Witch King launched an attack from Carn Dûm against the Dúnedain . But in the Battle of Fornost in 1975 he was defeated and fled his empire.
Carn Dûm means “red valley” and is derived from carn, caran (“red, reddish”) and tum , which means “deep valley” or “deep valley”.
The White Mountains , in the Elvish Ered Nimrais ('Mountains of the White Horns'), are comparable to the Alps. It extends from Minas Tirith in the east to the gate of Rohan in the north and the Cape of Andrast in the west. The only way through the Ered Nimrais is mentioned as the Paths of the Dead, a tunnel that runs under the mountains. At the foot of the Ered Nimrais in the north lies Edoras and, to the north, Helm's Gorge and the glittering grottoes of Aglarond . Nearby is the Hargtal with the fortress Dunharg . Between Edoras and Minas Tirith, there are beacons on seven selected mountain peaks, which are set up and maintained by Gondor in order to bring the allies in Rohan to the rescue in times of war .
The Shadow Mountain , Elvish Ephel Dúath (fence of the shadow) called, referred to the bare and steep mountains, which the western border Mordor forms. In the north it connects to the Ered Lithui ( Ash Mountains ). There are only two known crossings over the shadow mountains , Cirith Gorgor (horror fun ) at Morannon (Black Gate) and Cirith Ungol (spider pass) above Minas Morgul (tower of the magician).
The ashes Mountains , Elvish Ered Lithui , forms the northern border of Mordor and ends in the west with the Morannon (Black Gate). Sauron's fortress Barad-dûr (Dark Tower) is located on a southern branch .
The Troll Heights are a wooded hill country northwest of Rivendell, where Bilbo Baggins trolls were still at home in the days of Bilbo Baggins. The Great East Road runs along the southern edge of the Troll Heights , but the actual southern border of the area is formed - even a little further south - by the Lautwasser (Bruinen) river, which rises from the Nebelgebirge and passes near Rivendell . The western and northern ends of the heights are determined by the Weißquell river , which also comes from the Nebelgebirge and crosses the Große Oststraße at the “ L last bridge”. The eastern end of the Troll Heights forms the mountain range of the Nebelgebirge. This also shows that the Troll Heights are a western branch of this huge mountain range.
In the northwest of the Troll Heights, on the river Weißquell, are the ruins of the former capital Cameth Bin of the Kingdom of Rhudaur. The remains of the Tirbarad Terg signal tower can still be seen. This abandoned site can be reached via the almost completely overgrown Angmar Strait, which meets the Great East Road in the south of the Troll Heights.
The Eisenberge , in Elvish Ered Engrin , are created by Melkor in the north of Middle-earth as a protective wall for his fortresses Utumno and Angband . After Utumnos was destroyed, they were partially removed by Aule . After the "war of anger" they are dumped into the sea. What is left are the mountains of Angmar, the Ered Mithrin , north of the Mirkwood , and the Iron Mountains, east of the Erebor. The iron mountains are believed to be of volcanic origin as they spew fire in the battles of Beleriand .
The Blue Mountains , also known as Ered Luin or Ered Lindon ('Singing Mountains'), formed the eastern border of Beleriand in the First Age . In the Ered Luin are the dwarf cities of Nogrod andbelost . When Beleriand is devoured by the sea in the War of Wrath, the dwarf cities are also destroyed. Since then, the Blue Mountains can be found in the northwest of Middle-earth . When Smaug conquered the Lonely Mountain , the dwarves from Durin's people flee to the Ered Luin and set up their city of exile there. This is where Gimli , one of the Nine Companions, was born.
The Gray Mountains , or Ered Mithrin in Elvish , are like the Iron Mountains a remnant of the mountain wall that Melkor had created as protection for his fortresses Utumno and Angband . They extend from Gundabadberg in the north of the Nebelgebirge north over the bleak forest to the region north of the Lonely Mountain . They were considered a breeding ground for the dragons, who oppressed the dwarves from Durin's people from 2200 of the Third Age and finally drove them out of the mountain range in 2589. Until the "Battle of the Five Armies" in 2941, the Gray Mountains were also home to a large number of orcs. In Westron ("Common Language") they were called "Gray Mountains".
The lonely mountain
The Lonely Mountain is called Erebor in the language of the Elves . It is located east of the Mirkwood, north of the town of Esgaroth on the Long Lake. The kingdom of Thal lies directly at the foothills of the mountain and is inhabited by the northerners.
In 2770 D. Z. the Erebor is conquered by the dragon Smaug. The dwarves and the inhabitants of Thal are killed or driven out by him. Smaug seizes the dwarves' treasures and nests in the treasury. In 2941 D.Z. he is killed by the archer Bard in Esgaroth as part of Thorin Eichenschild's attempt to recapture the treasure with the help of twelve other dwarves and the hobbit Bilbo Baggins .
Shortly after Smaug's death, the "Battle of the Five Armies" takes place on the mountain, in which the dwarves fight together with the people of Thal and the Elves of Mirkwood against a large army of orcs and wargs. After the victory of the allied dwarves, elves, and humans, the traditional enmity between the elves and the dwarves of the Lonely Mountain will be buried.
During the War of the Ring, the Erebor is besieged by Easterlings, but can withstand them.
The Mount Doom , in Elvish Amon Amarth or Orodruin called Fire Mountain ', a volcano is in the northwest of Mordor and the place where Sauron in the Second Age the ring of power to all nations to submit to Middle-earth forges. Created in the fires of Mount Doom, the One Ring can only be destroyed there. At the end of the First Ring War, when Sauron is defeated by the combined armies of the Elves and Dunédain, Isildur , Elendil's heir , lets the opportunity slip by to destroy the ring in the fires of Mount Doom and keeps the ring to himself.
Mount Doom is the destination of Frodo and Sam's journey , who are given the almost impossible task of throwing the ring into the clefts of destiny and thereby destroying it. This is where the War of the Ring ends when Gollum and the ring fall into the fires of the mountain and Sauron is defeated, whose power is based on the power of the ring.
The weather tip
The weather tip Elvish Amon Sûl , Windsberg 'is the southernmost collection of weather mountains in Eriador . The three kingdoms of Arthedain, Rhudaur and Cardolan, which emerged from the crumbling kingdom of Arnor, meet at the weather tip. There is a watchtower on the mountain that houses one of the Palantíri. The tower is destroyed by an army from Angmar in the Third Age.
When Frodo and his companions are on the way from Bree to Rivendell under the leadership of Aragorn, the group is attacked on the Nazgûl Weathertop. Gandalf, who wanted to meet her there, had also been attacked shortly before on the mountain of Nazgûl.
According to legend, Elendil looked west from there until he saw the glittering armor of Gil Galad's army, which joined forces with his to go to war against Sauron.
The Mirkwood (the Hobbit , night forest 'called) is a forest in the north of Middle-earth to the east of the river Anduin. It used to be called the 'Great Grünwald', but after the end of the war of the last alliance in which Sauron lost the One Ring, his spirit withdrew to the fortress Dol Guldur in the south of the forest. From then on the forest was no longer safe and received its current name. In the northern part live the green and wood elves, which also include Legolas and Thranduil, prince of the forest and Legolas' father. After the end of the War of the Ring, the southern part came to Lórien. Two paths cross the Mirk Forest from west to east: the so-called Elbenweg in the north and the Old Forest Road further south. After the War of the Ring, the forest area, now freed from all dark creatures, was renamed again and has since been called 'Eryn Lasgalen' (Forests of Green Leaves).
The English name Mirkwood is taken directly from the Edda in terms of its name and concept . The old Norse name Myrkviđr means 'the dark forest'.
After Sauron was defeated at the end of the Second Age, his spirit returned around the year 1050 and stayed in the Dol Guldur Tower , 'Hill of Magic' on Mount Amon Lanc in the great Green Forest. At that time a shadow fell over the great Grünwald, and from then on it was called Mirkwood . While it was first suspected that this evil power emanated from one of the Nazgûl , Gandalf , after sneaking into Dol Guldur in 2063 of the D.Z., came to the opinion that this power was the returned spirit of Sauron. But Sauron fled from Gandalf, since his power had not yet regained strength.
400 years later, Sauron returned to Dol Guldur with increased power and stayed there. The people who feared that area still called him the summoner of the dead , because his true identity was still hidden from them. In 2850 Gandalf went to Dol Guldur again and realized without a doubt that its master was Sauron. He also found the dying Thráin II in the dungeons of Dol Guldur , from whom he received the map of Erebor and the key to the secret entrance of that mountain, which he gave Thorin Eichenschild for the journey to Erebor . An attack on Dol Guldur by the White Council did not occur until 2941, because Saruman had previously refused. But Sauron fled to Mordor , but Dol Guldur was reoccupied by three ringwraiths in 2951, including Khamûl, the only known by name and second highest of the Nazgûl, which is called the shadow from the east .
In saying that Khamûl is one of the three Nazgûl who live in Dol Guldur, there are contradictions in Tolkien's records , according to which Khamûl is the Nazgûl who speaks to Ohm Gamgee in Hobbiton and then takes up the pursuit of the Hobbits, whereby he you just missed the Bockenburger ferry. It is said of Khamûl himself that after the leader of the Nazgûl he is the one who can best sense the presence of the One Ring , but whose ability is most diminished by daylight.
During the War of the Ring there were three attacks on Lórien , starting from Dol Guldur, but all of them were repulsed. After the fall of Sauron at the end of the War of the Ring, Dol Guldur was razed by the Elves of Lórien under the leadership of Galadriel , after which the Amon Lanc became the seat of Celeborn and the capital of the Eastern Empire of Lórien.
Fangorn (also: Fangornwald , Entwald ) is one of the larger remaining remnants of the great forest that once covered large parts of Middle-earth. It is the home and retreat of the Ents and Huorns. Fangorn is located at the southern end of the Nebelgebirge in the neighborhood of Isengart. Fangorn's forest is described as ancient, gloomy and dangerous to unwanted intruders. The people living in the area do not enter it.
The mysterious Elven Kingdom of Lórien , founded by Galadriel and Celeborn after the destruction of Eregion , is located in the forest of the same name east of the Nebelgebirge. No evil enters the “Golden Forest” as it preserves the timelessness and beauty of Eldamar. While the elves of Lórien mercilessly fight orcs, well-meaning travelers have nothing to fear, but they are usually not allowed to cross the borders of the country. Lórien is also a special place of healing and magic, to be compared only with Rivendell (Imladris), where Elrond lives. The time in this approximately 80 × 80 kilometer forest passes faster than in the rest of Middle-earth, even without the influence of Galadriel's elven ring Nenya . A whole month therefore often seems like a single day to the traveler. The southeastern end of the Golden Forest is also called "Der Winkel" because it lies between the rivers Silberlauf (Celebrant) and Anduin. This is where Caras Galadhon (“City of Trees”), the capital of Lórien, is located. A little north of this only city in the Golden Forest is the hill Cerin Amroth. There lies the grave of Queen Arwen , who after the death of Aragorn returned to the place where they were once engaged. Arwen died there a year after arriving in Lórien.
Originally the forest was called Laurelindorinan or Lorinand (both: "Valley of the Singing Gold") by the first wood elves who lived there in the early First Age . But it was only Galadriel who founded the forest kingdom in the first half of the Second Age. The establishment of this empire prevented the slow but sure extinction of the wood elves in Lórien. For it was Galadriel who encouraged the scattered wood elves to unite in order to be better prepared for the difficult times that lay ahead of them. At that time, the empire received the shortened name Lothlórien ("blooming dream garden" or "dream flower" and "dream blossom land"), and finally, after the War of the Ring, the name was shortened again to Lórien ("dream"). From the beginning of the Third Age until 1981 D. Z. Amroth was ruler of Lothlórien. After his death, Galadriel came back with Celeborn to help the threatened Galadhrim again. With the help of Celeborn and Nenya , the ring of water, Galadriel was able to avert the dangers of Lothlórien for a long time. At the end of the War of the Ring, Lothlórien was attacked three times by enemies. But the Elves, under Celeborn's leadership, were able to defeat the enemy, although they themselves suffered heavy losses. After the end of the War of the Ring, Lothlórien was expanded to include the southern part of the Mirkwood, where the Dol Guldur fortress had previously been located. Two years after the War of the Ring, Galadriel left Lórien and sailed with the other Ringbearers for the old west. Without Galadriel, the land was slowly beginning to desolate, and Celeborn left and went to Rivendell.
The borders of the kingdom are defined by a large forest of mallorn trees on the banks of the Anduin rivers in the east and Silberlauf in the south. In the west, the natural border forms the Nebelgebirge. The people and dwarves of the north believe this land is home to terrible sorcery and avoid it. For their part, however, the Elves do nothing to dispel this impression, for they appreciate their privacy. The last time an army left Lothlórien was in 1410 D.Z. at the request of Elrond to take on the forces of the Witch King of Angmar.
Under the well-tended mallorn trees there are numerous gardens with beautiful flowers and powerful herbs. The elves themselves live high above the ground on platforms known to humans as fletts. The Flett can be reached by ropes through a hole in the middle of the platforms. The Fletts were also known to other elves, but they were only used for observation or as a hiding place.
The majority of the population belongs to the Galadhrim 'tree dwellers' - the native wood elves of Lothlórien. However, there are also some Noldor and Gray Elves who came along with Galadriel and Celeborn.
Today only a few Elves leave the shelter of the forest, and then only to visit their relatives in Lindon or the Mirkwood, or to make their last voyage across the great sea to the Grauerurfen west of the Shire. Only a few strangers enter Lórien, since its borders are well secured. However, those who enjoy the friendship of the prince and princess of the forest can safely enter the realm of the elves.
The Silberlauf is fed from the Spiegelsee lying between the cloud head and the Silberzinne. First it flows through the Schattenbach Valley , then joins the Nimrodel river, which the Elves sang about, and then flows slowly into the large Anduin. At the confluence there is a boat landing stage for the wood elves.
Lorien is attacked three times from Dol Guldur, but apart from the bravery of the Elvish people, the power that resides there is too great for anyone to defeat unless Sauron himself had got there. Although the forests on the borders are badly damaged, the attacks are repulsed and when the shadow passes, Celeborn comes out and leads Lorien's army in many boats across the Anduin . They take Dol Guldur and Galadriel tears down its walls and exposed his dungeons and the forest is cleared.
The old forest is considered a dangerous and enchanted forest, which is inhabited by mysterious and stubborn trees as well as the hospitable Tom Bombadil and his wife Goldberry .
The western border of the Old Forest is formed by the Hohe Hag built by the hobbits , a well-tended hedge that is supposed to protect their lands from the dangers of the forest, and further south is the brandy wine . The most important river in the forest is the willow wind , which flows into the brandy wine , which in turn flows into the sea. The northern border of the forest forms the Great East Road, in the east lie the eerie barrows. In the vicinity of the hobbit village of Krickloch, there is a tunnel dug under the Hohe Hag, which is closed with an iron grate door at the exit into the forest.
The trees, which are constantly changing their location, once moved up to the Hague and bent over it. The hobbits therefore cut off their branches and burned many in a clearing near the tunnel. This finally turned the forest against the hobbits. Since then, no trees have grown in the clearing.
Frodo and his companions Sam, Merry and Pippin cross the Old Forest on their journey to Rivendell. There they also meet Tom Bombadil and Goldberry.
The Anduin ('Long River'), also called "the Great River", is the longest river in Middle-earth after the fall of Beleriand . It covers about 1,500 miles from its source in the Ered Mithrin ('Misty Mountains') in the north to its estuary in the Bay of Belfalas. The Anduin flows over long stretches through a wide plain between the bleak forest and the foggy mountains . It meanders along Rohan and plunges into the Emyn Muil ('Barren Mountains') at the roaring waterfalls of the Rauros ('Rushing') before it reaches Anórien and Ithilien . It then passes the eastern foothills of the Ered Nimrais at Minas Tirith, until it finally reaches the sea along Lebennin's border. Its northern tributaries are called Grauquell and Langquell. Then come the rivers Rhimdath ('Fall'), Sír Ninglor ('Sword'), Celebrant ('Silberlauf'), Limklar, and the Onodló ('Entwasser'), each springing from the Fog Mountains. Erui ('first') and Sirith ('streaming') come from the Ered Nimreais and finally the Poros ('dusty'), the only tributary from the east that has its source in the Ephel Duath.
In the prehistoric times, when the Elves first colonized this area, they are a lake located in a deep depression into which the Anduin flows from the north, which covers the fastest part of its course, a descent of about 70 miles, and is with it the raging Sword River, also called Sir Ninglor, which falls from the mountains. Over time, the lake becomes an extensive swamp area and large fields of sedge and rushes, but above all yellow irises, which give it its name, grow in it and on its banks. It is the place where Isildur to a ring loses and orcs killed.
The Bruinen ('Lautwasser') is a river that rises in the northern Nebelgebirge and flows through Eriador . A small tributary flows into it near the Bruinenfurt near Bruchtal , which is the only way to cross the Bruinen. In the south of Eriador, the Bruinen flows into the so-called Winkel with the Weißquell ('Mitheithel'), which joins the Glanduin ('border river') above Tharbad and forms the gray tide ('Gwathló') with it. Between these two tributaries of the Weißquell lies the Eregion , north of the Bruinen was the former kingdom of Rhudaur ('Ostwald'), part of the collapsed kingdom of Arnor .
Elrond the Half-Elf has the power to swell the river in order to ward off danger. So he succeeds in preventing the ringwraiths from crossing and driving them to flight.
The brandy wine (Elvish baranduin , which means 'golden brown river') is a large river in Eriador . It rises in the Abendrotsee and flows into the sea in the south. It flows through the Shire and largely forms its border. It can only be crossed over the Brandyweinbrücke, the Sarnfurt or with the Bockenburger ferry.
The Isen or Elvish Angren ('iron') is a river that flows south past Isengard , then makes a wide arc to the west after the “Fords of Isen”, passes the gate of Rohan and flows into the sea about 300 miles later . It forms the natural border between Dunland and Rohan.
During the War of the Ring, the Ents temporarily diverted its water to flood Isengard.
The long lake is an oval-shaped lake in the north of Rhovanion (Wilderland) and in the east of the Bleak Forest . It is fed by the forest river and the river Eilend, Elvish Celduin ('the lively'). In it is the seaside town of Esgaroth , built on wooden stakes .
The Gelion is one of the great rivers of Middle-earth with its 780 miles. It's almost twice as long as the Sirion Stream. The Gelion runs parallel to the Ered Luin ('Blue Mountains') and is fed from this mountain range by seven tributaries. This is why the land between the mountains and the river is also known as Ossiriand ('Seven Rivers Land '). The six middle tributaries are called Ascar ('the Rasche'), on the north bank of which the Dwarf Street Rathlóriel ('Street of Gold') runs, which runs from the dwarf fortress Nogrod to Doriath, Thalos ('Strong River'), Legolin ('Green or Freshwater '), Brilthor (' jewel shine '), Duilwen (' lifeline ') and Adurant (' double barrel ') in which Tol Galen (' the green island ') is located, on which Lúthien and Beren lived for a while.
The Sirion measures 390 miles from its source to its mouth. On its way it flows for about 9 miles under the foothills of the Andram Mountains ('Long Wall'). Its western tributaries are the Teiglin ('Grenzwasser') with its deep gorge in Brethil ('Birkenland') and the Narog ('the ripping one'), on which the cave fortress Finrods was located. From the east come the Mindeb ('First Barrier'), Esgalduin ('Shadow River ') and the Aros ('The Foaming'), which limit or flow through the kingdom of Doriath .
The dark land were a continent of Arda , the south-east of Middle-earth and southwest of the walls of the sun was. It was probably created when Arda was transformed into a sphere. Tolkien doesn't describe much of this continent, only that it was densely forested and uninhabited. According to his “theory”, the Dunkellande shifted 90 ° clockwise and drifted off to the southern polar cap, where it eventually became today's Antarctica .
Walls of the sun
The walls of the sun , also called Berge der Sonne , Sonnenlande or Osternis (as a contrast to Westernis ), were the easternmost continent of Ardas . Here, after the Pelóri in Aman, were the second highest mountains in the world. Of these, the highest was the caloric. The sun rose behind them until the world was transformed (hence the name). Otherwise nothing is known about this continent, including whether it is inhabited, but it was probably much too hot to live there due to its proximity to the sun. Tolkien's "theory" says that the Sunlands divided into two smaller continents in the Fourth Age, which we now know as North and South America .
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- The music of the Ainur
- Part 1, V. The Arrival of the Elves and the Establishment of Cor. P. 135.
- The Book of Lost Stories. Part 1, p. 102.
- Historical Atlas of Middle-earth. P. 5, p. 39 and p. 191.
- Karen Wynn Fonstad : Historical Atlas of Middle-earth. Completely revised edition. From the American by Hans J. Schütz. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1994, p. 6, which takes most of the information from the Silmarillion .
- Quenta Silmarillion. P. 44.
- The Fall of Númenor. P. 352.
- Awakening of the Elves and Melkor's Captivity. P. 59.
- So suspects Karen Wynn Fonstad: Historical Atlas of Middle-earth. Completely revised edition. From the American by Hans J. Schütz. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1994, p. 22.
- Gondolin. In: The Atlas of Middle-Earth. P. 22.
- In: News from Middle-earth. P. 31.
- Tolkien's Gondolin. (No longer available online.) In: library.thinkquest.org. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009 ; accessed on May 22, 2015 .
- Eriador: Land of Rangers - Lord of the Rings, Hobbit & Co. In: faszination-tolkien.de. Retrieved May 22, 2015 .
- The Lord of the Rings. Volume 2, 1977, ISBN 3-12-908000-7 , p. 147 ff. (Carroux).
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- The story of Moria (Part 1: From the Beginning to the Second Age) March 22, 2010 ( tolkiens-welt.de ( Memento of March 24, 2010 in the Internet Archive )).
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- Rudolf Simek: Middle Earth - Tolkien and Germanic mythology. P. 53.
- In the map of Middle-earth there is a spelling mistake for the river Sirith , it says "Sirich", but there is no such word in Sindarin, see also Karen Wynn Fonstad: Historischer Atlas von Mittelerde. P. 89.
- Book of Lost Stories. Part 1, 15th edition, Stuttgart 2007, p. 243 f.