A steep curve is a curve that is strongly inclined towards the inside. More generally, for example in the case of railways, one speaks of cant . Steep turns and excessive curves allow higher cornering speeds.
Brooklands , the first racing circuit in Great Britain (also the first permanent racing circuit in the world), went into operation with banked turns as early as 1907. Concrete had to be used for construction because at that time you could not create the required slope with asphalt . In Germany, the north curve of the AVUS was converted into a steep curve in 1937 , but demolished again in 1967 and replaced by a flat curve. 1932 was taken on the Nordschleife of the Nürburgring the carousel . Originally a flat 180 ° bend in which drivers like Caracciola hooked their tires on the inside of the bend, similar to the usual rallies, and soon drove more in the ditch than on the piste, whereupon the inner area was paved as a banked bend . This steep curve, named Caracciola carousel in 2001 , is still used in races today, as is the small carousel at Schwalbenschanz. The Lausitzring in Brandenburg , which opened in 2000, also has elevated curves in the tri-oval with an incline of up to 5.7 °. Formula 1 races with banked turns were held at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza until 1961 , and the Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry near Paris had a route with banked curves. These structures, which are reminiscent of a house roof with a slope of over 30 degrees , were either removed or no longer used and left to decay. Also known for their banked turns are the racetracks in the USA, often designed as oval courses , on which NASCAR drives, among others . In the Daytona 24-hour race , the banked turns on the circuit are also included. Prime 2020 establishes the formula 1 on the Circuit Park Zandvoort two banked curves, where the Arie Luyendijkkurve having an elevation of 32 percent (18 degrees). At the same time, this driving element, which is atypical for the current Formula 1, returns.
Banked turns can also be part of test tracks in the automotive industry , e.g. B. Opel in Rodgau-Dudenhofen , VW in Ehra-Lessien , BMW in Miramas , Bosch in Boxberg- Windischbuch # test track , Automotive Testing Papenburg and the Dekra Test Oval at Lausitzring . The famous Pista di Nardò test track in southern Italy was taken over by the Porsche subsidiary Porsche Engineering in 2012 . On the test track equipped with banked turns, speeds of up to 500 km / h are possible. Porsche tests its production and racing cars on the circuit .
Banked turns are also a possible rail segment of many model car racing tracks . Gradients with an angle of over 45 ° are possible. Steep curves are used in order to be able to drive through the curve at a higher speed . However, the model vehicles can slip off the track if they are stopped or are just too slow.
In track cycling steep curves can also use. In skiing , steep turns are often used for driving stability, but there are also so-called negative curves in which the road is sloping towards the outside.