Striped duck

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Striped duck
True striped duck (Hemicentetes semispinosus)

True striped duck ( Hemicentetes semispinosus )

Superordinate : Afrotheria
without rank: Afroinsectiphilia
Order : Tenrecus (Afrosoricida)
Family : Tenreks (Tenrecidae)
Subfamily : Hedgehog treks (Tenrecinae)
Genre : Striped duck
Scientific name
Mivart , 1871

The Striped Tentreks ( Hemicentetes ) are a genus of mammals from the subfamily of the Igeltenreks (Tenrecinae) within the Tenreks (Tenrecidae) family. Two species are assigned to it , the real striped rek and the black-headed rek . They occur exclusively in Madagascar , where they inhabit tropical rainforests in the lowlands and mountains. In addition, they also occur in open landscapes and penetrate into human settlements. In addition to their hedgehog-like appearance, the striped fur pattern and the long, extended snout are among the characteristic features of the animals. In the neck there is a ruff made of spikes with barbs that can be set up and used for defense. Another peculiarity can be found in the stridulation organ on the back, which consists of special spines without barbs. With this, different tones can be generated for intra-species communication. Because of these and some other properties, the striped tenreks are among the most specialized representatives of the tenreks.

The striped tenreks live on the ground and dig underground structures as shelters. They orient themselves by means of the sense of smell , but are also capable of a simple form of echolocation . The main activities take place in the southern summer or during the rainy season. In the southern winter or in the dry season, the animals fall into a torpor due to their fluctuating body temperature . It is known of the actual striped duck that it lives in family groups or colonies during the summer months, which rarely occurs within the tenreks. The period also forms the reproductive phase. The litters can contain up to eleven young animals, whose individual development is very rapid. The diet of the striped duck is mainly based on earthworms , of which they can devour the amount of their own body weight in the course of a day.

From a research-historical point of view, the first Streifentenreks were mentioned as early as the second half of the 18th century and described a little later as an independent species. As a rule, however, they were referred to the same genus as the Great Tenrek in the 19th century . It wasn't until around a hundred years after it was first mentioned in 1871 that St. George Mivart established its own genus for the striped ducklings. In the course of the 20th century, only one species was recognized with the actual Streifentenrek, while the black-headed trek was viewed as a subspecies.



Black headedrek ( Hemicentetes nigriceps )

The striped tenreks belong to the medium-sized tenreks. They reach a head-trunk length of 12 to 19 cm and a body weight of 70 to 220 g. The two known species, the actual striped duck trek ( Hemicentetes semispinosus ) and the black-headed trek ( Hemicentetes nigriceps ), are approximately the same size with slightly larger average dimensions in the former. Typical of the striped ducklings is their hedgehog-like appearance with a stocky body and short stubby tail. The limbs are comparatively long and equipped with strong toes. The animals do not have a continuous spiked dress, but rather a bristly fur from which the spines protrude. These have small barbs and regenerate when lost. The basic color on the back is black, it clearly stands out from the lighter underside. The dark color on the back is broken up by three lighter stripes, which are tinted yellow in the real stripe duck and whitish in the black-headed rek. An additional light area is on the neck. The spines in the lighter colored stripes have lengths of 13 to 16 mm and are therefore on average larger than the 8 to 14 mm long spines in the dark areas. Hair and bristles also occur here, which form a dense undercoat in the black-headed rek, so that it appears overall softer than the actual striped duck. The longest spines with 22 to 30 mm occur on the neck. There they form a distinctive ruff that can be set up. In addition, the long spines in the neck mix with individual lighter and darker spines from 11 to 16 mm in length as well as with half-spines and hairs, the length of which varies between 10 and 13 mm. A special formation can be found on the rear, where a few strong spines form an organ of stridulation . The head of the streaked tenreks is extremely delicate. It is also black in color. In the real Streifentenrek this is halved by a yellowish central stripe, in the Schwarzkopfrek there is no corresponding pattern. The snout is very long and tapering towards the front, it ends in a bare nose. Also to be emphasized are the striking vibrissae and the very small eyes. Females have a total of 18 to 20 teats . Overall, the distinctive fringe pattern is partially interpreted as warning against predators or mimicry viewed, wherein the hemicentetes the young animals of the sympatrically occurring Great tenrecs ( Tenrec ecaudatus mimic), which are strongly protected from their mother.

Skull and dentition features

Skull of the striped duck proper

The head of the striped duck is very graceful. Special features are the extremely long rostrum and the short brain skull. The ratio of the anterior to the posterior section of the skull is 0.61: 0.39. Seen from above, the rostrum is narrow, it draws in at about the level of the posterior premolar , which means that the skull does not appear as cylindrical as in the great tenrek. Furthermore, there is no clear constriction behind the eyes. In side view, however, the skull has a conical shape. The nasal bone is elongated and mostly only grows together in its rear section. The palatine bone is also clearly expanded and extends beyond the last molars . The median jawbone has a small shape. As with all tenreks, the zygomatic arch does not develop completely, but the anterior arch attachment does not protrude as far outward as in the large tenrek. Only a few prominent bone ribs are formed as muscle attachment points on the back of the skull. The occiput is set up steeply. The dentition consists of 40 teeth, the dental formula is as follows: . The generally small size of the teeth and the large diastemata between all front teeth including the premolars are striking , both characteristics are typical characteristics of food specialists who mainly feed on ants or worms . The upper incisors and the canine are curved backwards like a hook and have additional cusps. In contrast, the lower incisors have a shovel-like shape, while the canine here in turn resembles its upper counterpart. In contrast to the upper canine, the lower canine protrudes beyond the incisors of the lower jaw. The molars have, in accordance with the other tenreks, a zalambdodontic occlusal surface pattern consisting of three main cusps.

Skeletal features

The spine is made up of 7 cervical, 16 to 17 thoracic, 4 to 5 lumbar, 2 sacrum and 9 to 10 tail vertebrae. The skeleton structure shows some adaptations to the digging way of life, which are particularly evident on the front legs. Among other things, these can be found in the comparatively long and narrow shoulder blade , which, however, does not appear as extremely stretched as in the rice rooters ( Oryzorictes ). The humerus is also short and robust, and the inner joint roller at the elbow joint pulls out very strongly to the side. In addition, the ulna has a significantly longer upper joint end than other hedgehog tenreks, the olecranon . It makes up about 22 to 23% of the total length of the bone; within the Tenreks, this value is only exceeded by the rice burrowers. Both ends of the joint act as a starting point for strong forearm muscles. The carpal bones are short and wide. The scaphoid forms a fused unit with the central bone . This makes the wrist more stable and less flexible. Something similar is the case with the rice diggers, but the moon bone is also included here. The second and third metacarpal bones are built much more robustly, whereas the first shows shortenings compared to the climbing tenrek representatives. The claws of the second and third finger rays are also very robust and long, much longer than other hedgehog treks.

Stridulation organ

A special feature is the stridulation organ, located in the rear section of the midline of the back. It consists of 7 to 18 special spines arranged in three rows. According to a measured specimen, the three rows extend over a length of 1.68 cm along the center line of the back and a width of 0.86 cm, so they take up a total area of ​​around 1 cm². In the naked state, the surface of the stridulation organ is clearly visible; in addition to the spines, it also contains sweat glands . The spines formed here are significantly heavier and slightly different in shape than their counterparts on the neck. They also have no barbs and do not regenerate in adult animals. Their length is 8 to 9 mm, their maximum width 0.8 to 0.9 mm, the spines of the outer rows are on average thicker than those of the middle row. The largest diameter is reached in the lower part, the spines taper towards the top so that their outline resembles a bottle. In the lower half, the spines are surrounded by ten darker lines, otherwise they are predominantly colored light brown. The spines penetrate the skin and reach into the area of ​​the muscles. At the bases attached here, the spines are enclosed by capsules made of connective tissue and a special fatty tissue. Like the spines of the neck, the spines of the stridulation organ can be moved, for which the arrectores pilorum muscle is responsible, among other things. At the same time, the connective tissue capsules are located in the cutaneus trunci muscle, one of the skin muscles , so that a strongly interwoven muscle tissue is created here.

By contracting the various muscle areas, the spines can be rotated clockwise or counterclockwise. The direction of rotation can be changed, but it behaves in opposite directions for both sides of the body. Through the movements, the spines touch each other and create rattling sounds. The tones produced in this way are in the higher frequency range between 2 and 80  kHz , sometimes they can reach up to 200 kHz. Within this range, various maxima move between 20 and 45 and 50 and 150 kHz, the volume is up to 63  db . The tones last between 7 and 100 ms, and up to 70 tones are generated during a two-minute sequence. The two types of streaked tenrek differ somewhat in the number and duration of the tone impulses, since the black-headed trek produces on average longer tones than the actual streaked tenrek. The animals themselves can only perceive a restricted range of their stridulation sounds; their optimal hearing frequency ranges from 10 to 15 or up to 20 kHz. However, this is sufficient for a transmission range of 4 to a maximum of about 10 m. The ability of the striped duck to stridulate was first described in 1935 by Austin Loomer Rand .

distribution and habitat

The striped ducklings are endemic to Madagascar . Both species occur in the eastern part of the island. The Schwarzkopftenrek is rather limited to the central to south-eastern areas, while the Stripe Tentrek proper has a more extensive distribution area in the north-south direction. The animals predominantly inhabit tropical rainforests , but they can also be found in more open landscapes and in anthropogenically influenced areas such as agricultural areas or gardens and sometimes penetrate into human settlements. In some regions such as the Andringitra Mountains or the mountainous countries around Ivohibe in the province of Fianarantsoa , both species occur allopatric . Under these circumstances, the Schwarzkopftenrek prefers higher altitudes up to above the tree line, the actual Streifentenrek the lowlands and middle mountain regions. Only in the forest area of ​​Mahatsìnjo at an altitude of 1550 m southeast of Tsinjoarivo in the province of Antananarivo has a sympatric distribution of the two species been observed. In general, both the black-headed trek and the actual striped duck trek are relatively common.

Way of life

Territorial and social behavior

The way of life of the striped duck has been well studied. They are floor-living and sole walkers who move around the cloister and can climb and swim with alternating movements of the limbs, but rarely do it. The two species differ in terms of their activity times, as the black-headed trek is strictly nocturnal, but the actual striped duck trek also occurs increasingly during the day. In the rest phases, the animals retreat into underground burrows they dug themselves, then they sleep curled up with their heads on their tummies, so that the main load of the weight is borne on their feet, and sometimes they also lie to the side. The burrows are around 45 cm long in individual animals and reach around 7.5 cm below the ground. The animals dig out their burrows with their wide front paws, with alternating arm movements also prevailing here, and the resulting excavation is pushed away with the hind legs. From a length of around 30 cm, the animals begin to use their mouths to transport plant material for a nest. The individual entrance is also covered with parts of plants. The striped duck proper is known to form larger family groups and colonies consisting of adult animals of both sexes and several generations of young animals in the reproductive phase. Larger groups can contain up to two dozen individuals. These groups then use more complex tunnel systems with lengths of up to 3 m. In the winter time, however, the groups disintegrate again.

Actual streaked duck

Social contacts between conspecifics usually consist of mutual sniffing. They are much more peaceful in the actual Streifentenrek. Antagonistic behavior is generally expressed in the straightening of the spines on the neck and body. The spines in the neck, in particular, can be viewed as an indicator of the degree of arousal. Slightly erect spines usually indicate attentive animals, while vertically standing or tilted spines indicate strongly aggressive behavior. This stage is also associated with typical up and down movements of the head, as a result of which the spines can injure a potential opponent due to their easy detachment from the body and the small barbs. Animals that are disturbed in their structure usually erect their spines completely. Encounters with potential predators lead mainly to flight, in contrast to the large ( Setifer setosus ) and the small hedgehog ( Echinops telfairi ), the striped duck can not curl up into a ball. Likewise, there is no opening of the mouth, which is typical for other tenreks, as a threatening gesture or bites for defense, both of which are not very effective with the rather small teeth.

The striped tenreks have a good sense of smell , which is used, among other things, for orientation and foraging. In unknown areas, the animals sniff in the air and on the ground, which sometimes happens four to five times within a second. It is also used for intra-species communication, for example when marking the entrances to the burrows. In addition, the streaked tenreks have a range of sounds, including grunting, squeaking, and chirping tones. Other sounds are obviously also used for orientation in difficult terrain or at night. This includes high-frequency tongue clicks in the range from 11 to 16  kHz and a duration of 0.2 to 0.7 ms, which act as signals for echolocation . It was sometimes assumed that stridulation also serves for echolocation, but this has not been confirmed in experiments. The function of the stridulation is not clear, it takes place above all with attention and arousal, but runs independently of the erection of the spines in the neck. The animals stridulate during general activity, when searching for food, during social contacts or during sexual intercourse and when fleeing. The back spines, however, do not rattle while eating or cleaning. The rattling noises may transmit important information about the sender to other conspecifics. Experiments with mother and young animals showed that stridulating animals were often farther apart than those that did not make any rattling noises. In addition, young animals are stimulated to move in the direction of the transmitter of the stridulations, but according to the experiments they do not differentiate between the stridulation of the mother and other conspecifics. Another reason for the rattle may be a warning signal to predators.

Diet and energy balance

The diet of the striped duckfish consists of invertebrates , the majority is covered by earthworms , and less often they also eat larvae of insects . However, there is a trophic difference between the black-headed trek and the actual striped duck trek in the area where they occur together at Tsinjoarivo, as isotope studies on animals from the region have shown. Accordingly, according to the studies, the former feeds on secondary consumers more frequently , while the latter has an isotope spectrum that is typical for animals living underground. The search for food usually takes place in clearings with loose and moist soils. The animals sniff the prey with their long snouts in the ground or under leaves. Detected earthworms are grabbed with the mouth and pulled out of the ground by jerky backward movements of the head. Then it is rubbed sideways with the front paws and freed from earth, which also serves to determine the size of the prey. The typical dentition of the striped tenreks with the small teeth and the large gaps between their teeth represents an adaptation to the worm-containing food. Since the teeth are hardly suitable for chewing, the food is usually completely devoured, too large worms cut up the striped ducklings by trampling with their feet and Claws. The incisors, bent back like a hook, later fix the food in the mouth and prevent it from sliding out. The amount of food consumed daily is relatively high and corresponds almost to the body weight of an animal.

As with other tenreks, the body temperature of the streaked tenreks fluctuates strongly and shows cyclical changes in the course of the day as well as in the course of the year, it depends on the activity and adapts to the external conditions. Especially in the southern winter from June to October, the body temperature is only a few degrees above the outside temperature. During this period, torpor also occurs, which is linked, among other things, to the availability of earthworms as main food, the number of which decreases sharply in the drier winter. In the case of the Schwarzkopfrek, the torpor is more intense due to its distribution in higher mountain areas on average than in the actual Streifentenrek, in which the rigid phases are more dependent on the individual constitution. The former can therefore be regarded as a mandatory winter sleeper, the latter as an optional one. The metabolic rate is very low compared to similarly sized mammals and only reaches 49 to 69% of the expected value; it also varies over the course of the year with lower values ​​in winter than in summer. In phases of increased stress such as reproduction, the metabolism also increases, which is often associated with a stabilization of body temperature during this time. There are also strong annual body weight fluctuations with lower weights in winter and higher in summer.


The reproduction of both representatives of the striped duck is limited to the southern summer from November to May. The partner acquisition consists of the mutual sniffing of different parts of the body in a fixed order, starting from the nose over the rear part to the neck, whereupon the sexual act takes place. After a gestation period of 55 to 63 days , two to eleven young animals are born, whereby the average litter size in the actual striped duck trek with 6 to 8 young animals is significantly larger than in the black-headed trek with 3 to 5. The offspring is born as a nestling and initially remains in a nest made of plant material. The boys only leave the residential building for the first time when they open their eyes after around 9 days. The individual development of the young takes place very quickly, so that females reach sexual maturity after four and a half to five weeks, which is one of the shortest generations of mammals. In the Schwarzkopfrek, the father animal is not involved in the rearing of the offspring, female animals with young strictly defend their nest. In contrast to this, in the actual Streifentenrek, a mother retreats to a more distant corner of the tunnel system, but otherwise remains in the family group. In addition, from a certain age of the young, she tolerates the presence of strange males. Possibly the reasons for the colony formation of the actual striped duck can be found in the average larger litter size combined with the lower intraspecific aggressiveness. The life expectancy of the striped duck in the wild is unknown; the highest known age of an animal in captivity was just under three years.


Internal systematics of the Tenreks according to Everson et al. 2016





 Hemicentetes nigriceps


 Hemicentetes semispinosus











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The striped tenreks are a genus within the tenrek family (Tenrecidae). Together with the large tenrek ( Tenrec ecaudatus ) as well as the large ( Setifer setosus ) and the small hedgehog ( Echinops telfairi ) the subfamily of the hedgehog (Tenrecinae), one of the three main lines of the tenreks. The others are represented by the very diverse rice burrowers (Oryzorictinae) and the monotypical Erdtenreks (Geogalinae), which, unlike the prickly hedgehog reks, have a soft-haired fur. The streaked tenreks are among the most specialized tenreks, which, in addition to their burrowing way of life and the short generation succession, is expressed by the stridulation organ due to their special diet, extremely small teeth or the barbed spines. While barbed spines are absent in other hedgehog tenreks, the stridulation organ is also found in a weakened form in the great tenrek, in which, however, only the young animals have the appropriate ability. According to molecular genetic analyzes, the great tenrek is also the sister form of the striped tenrek . The two lines already separated in the Lower Miocene about 16.1 million years ago, while the division of Hemicentetes did not take place until the Pliocene 4.75 million years ago.

Today, a distinction is made between two types within the striped tenrec:

  • True striped duck ( Hemicentetes semispinosus ( G. Couvier , 1798))
  • Schwarzkopfrek ( Hemicentetes. Nigriceps Günther , 1875)

Other species that were mainly introduced in the 19th century, such as H. madagascariensis , H. variegatus or H. buffoni, turned out to be synonymous with the actual striped duck trek or the black-headed trek. In the 1970s to 1990s in particular, the black-headed trek was partially viewed as a subspecies of the actual striped duck. However, in addition to the noticeable deviations in the external appearance, there are also evident skull and tooth features, which is why numerous researchers during this time did not support the merging of the two species. Ultimately, the discovery of the sympatric occurrence of the two forms at Tsinjoarivo in the province of Antananarivo at the end of the 1990s again led to the division of the striped duck into two species.

Research history

St. George Jackson Mivart

The first reports of striped tenreks go back to the 18th century. Before that, Étienne de Flacourt had mentioned and depicted an animal called "tendrac" in his monograph Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar in 1661 , he also emphasized the hedgehog-like appearance of the "tendrac" and thus probably referred to the great hedgehog tenrek. Around 100 years later, in 1764, Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon made a distinction between the “tendrac” and the “tanrec” in the twelfth volume of his comprehensive work Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière . According to his statements, the "tanrec" was significantly larger than the "tendrac" and had a long, pointed snout and a distinctive ruff on the neck. Buffon depicted the animals on two attached panels, which were characterized by a uniform color of the fur. In contrast, two additional volumes of the Histoire naturelle , which were published in 1776 and 1789, each contained illustrations of striped tenreks. Buffon interpreted the illustration of 1776 as a young animal of "tanrec" ( le jeune tanrec ), and that of 1789 as that of "tendrac". Two decades later, in 1798, Georges Cuvier used the illustration from 1776 to set up another independent species of tenreks and named them Erinaceus semispinosus . The same illustration served shortly afterwards both George Shaw for the establishment of the scientific species name Erinaceus madagascariensis and Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire for the scientific name Setiger variegatus . All three names refer to the actual Streifentenrek, with only the first species name ( Erinaceus semispinosus ) being valid, following the rules of the zoological nomenclature of the ICZN .

In the following period, numerous authors arranged the new form in the vicinity of the Great Tenrek, which was mostly carried under the old synonym Centetes in the course of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century . The genus Hemicentetes was finally first described scientifically in 1871 by St. George Mivart . Mivart only referred to the striking external appearance of the striped duck and then presented the skeletal anatomy in more detail. In his publication he saw H. madagascariensis as the nominate form . In addition, he compared Hemicentetes with the Great Tenrek (then Centetes , now Tenrec ) and at the same time set them apart. The generic name Hemicentetes (from ancient Greek ἥμι hemi for “half” and κεντητήϛ kentetes , derived from κεντητος kentetos for “embroidered” or κεντεω kenteo for “pierce”) also refers to this .

Threat and protection

The two species of streaked duck are widespread and are considered to be relatively common. In addition, they can cope with anthropogenically modified landscapes such as rice fields and plantations and penetrate human settlements. There are no major threats to the stocks, the IUCN classifies both species as "not endangered" ( least concern ). They are represented in several nature reserves. As a result, they are less affected than other animal species by the transformation of the rainforests into fields.


  • JF Eisenberg and Edwin Gould: The Tenrecs: A Study in Mammalian Behavior and Evolution. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970, pp. 1-138
  • Kathryn M. Everson, Voahangy Soarimalala, Steven M. Goodman and Link E. Olson: Multiple loci and complete taxonomic sampling resolve the phylogeny and biogeographic history of tenrecs (Mammalia: Tenrecidae) and reveal higher speciation rates in Madagascar's humid forests. Systematic Biology 65 (5), 2016, pp. 890-909 doi: 10.1093 / sysbio / syw034
  • Nick Garbutt: Mammals of Madagascar. A complete guide. Yale University Press, 2007, pp. 1–304 (pp. 32–56)
  • Christopher D. Marshall and John F. Eisenberg: Hemicentetes semispinosus. Mammalian Species 541, 1996, pp. 1-4
  • Ronald M. Nowak: Walker's Mammals of the World . The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1999, ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
  • Peter J. Stephenson: Streaked tenrecs, Hemicentetes. Afrotherian Conservation 5, 2007, pp. 1-3

Individual evidence

  1. a b Olga V. Zherebtsova: Morphofunctional interpretation of the quills stridulating in tenrecs (Lipotyphla, Tenrecidae). Russian Journal of Theriology 5 (1), 2006, pp. 1-11
  2. Konrad Herter: About the hedgehogs of Madagascar (Tenrecinae). Meeting reports of the Society of Friends of Natural Sciences in Berlin NF 2, 1962, pp. 5-37
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  5. ^ A b Nick Garbutt: Mammals of Madagascar. A complete guide. Yale University Press, 2007, pp. 1–304 (pp. 32–56)
  6. ^ A b Peter J. Stephenson: Streaked tenrecs, Hemicentetes. Afrotherian Conservation 5, 2007, pp. 1-3
  7. ^ A b Walter Poduschka: Hyperthelia, litter size and gestation duration in the subfamily Tenrecinae Cabrera, 1925 (Mammalia: Insectivora: Tenrecidae), together with remarks on the longitudinal striations of the genus Hemicentetes. Contributions to Zoology 66 (2), 1996, pp. 119-128
  8. a b c Wilhelm Leche: On the history of the development of the mammalian tooth system, at the same time a contribution to the tribal history of this group of animals. Part two: phylogeny. Second booklet: Families of the Centetidae, Solenodontidae and Chrysochloridae. Zoologica 20, 1906/1908, pp. 1–157 ( [1] )
  9. ^ A b Cyril Charles, Floréal Solé, Helder Gomes Rodrigues and Laurent Viriot: Under pressure? Dental adaptions to termitophagy and vermivory among mammals. Evolution 67 (6), 2013, pp. 1792-1804
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  11. ^ A b Percy M. Butler: A Comparison of the Skulls and Teeth of the Two Species of Hemicentetes. Journal of Mammalogy 22 (1), 1941, pp. 65-81
  12. ^ Justine A. Salton and Eric J. Sargis: Evolutionary morphology of the Tenrecoidea (Mammalia) carpal complex. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 93, 2008, pp. 267-288
  13. ^ Justine A. Salton and Eric J. Sargis: Evolutionary Morphology of the Tenrecoidea (Mammalia) Forelimb Skeleton. In: EJ Sargis and M. Dagosto (Eds.): Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology: A Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay, Springer Science, 2008, pp. 51-71
  14. ^ A b c d e Edwin Gould and John F. Eisenberg: Notes on the biology of the Tenrecidae. Journal of Mammalogy 47 (4), 1966, pp. 660-686
  15. ^ A b J. J. Petter and A. Petter-Rousseaux: Notes biologiques sur les Centetinae. La Terre et la Vie 17 (1), 1963, pp. 66-80
  16. ^ A b Ernest Glen Wever and Paul N. Herman: Stridulation and Hearing in the Tenrec. Journal of Auditory Research 8, 1968, pp. 39-42
  17. Hideki Endo, Daisuke Koyabu, Junpei Kimura, Felix Rakotondraparany, Atsushi Matsui, Takahiro Yonezawa, Akio Shinohara and Masami Hasegawa: A Quill Vibrating Mechanism for a Sounding Apparatus in the Streaked Tenrec (Hemicentetes semispinosus). Zoological Science 27, 2010, pp. 427-432
  18. ^ A b Edwin Gould: Evidence for echolocation in the Tenrecidae of Madagascar. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 109 (6), 1965, pp. 352-360
  19. AL Rand: On the Habits of Some Madagascar Mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 16 (2), 1935, pp. 89-104
  20. ^ A b Steven M. Goodman, Daniel Rakotondravony, Voahangy Soarimalala, JB Duchemin and J.-M. Duplantier: Syntopic occurrence of Hemicentetes semispinosus and H. nigriceps (Lipotyphla: Tenrecidae) on the central highlands of Madagascar. Mammalia 64, 2000, pp. 113-116
  21. Steven M. Goodman, Daniel Rakotondravony, Marie Jeanne Raherilalao, Domoina Rakotomalala, Achille P. Raselimanana, Voahangy Soarimalala, Jean-Marc Duplantier, Jean-Bernard Duchemin and J. Rafanomezantsoa: Inventaire biologique de la Foret de Tsinjoarivo, Ambatolampy. Akon'ny Ala 27, 2000, pp. 18-27
  22. ^ A b P. J. Stephenson, Voahangy Soarimalala and Steven M. Goodman: Hemicentetes semispinosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016. e.T40593A97189434 ( [3] ); last accessed on March 2, 2017
  23. a b P. J. Stephenson, Voahangy Soarimalala and Steven M. Goodman: Hemicentetes nigriceps. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016. e.T62011A97189172 ( [4] ); last accessed on March 2, 2017
  24. a b Konrad Herter: Investigations on living hedgehogs (Tenrecinae), 3: About the behavior and the way of life of the striped turkey (Hemicentetes semispinosus G. Cuvier) in captivity. Zoological Contributions 9 (2), 1963, pp. 237-274
  25. Melanie Dammhahn, Voahangy Soarimalala and Steven M. Goodman: Trophic Niche Differentiation and Microhabitat Utilization in a Species-rich Montane Forest Small Mammal Community of Eastern Madagascar. Biotropica 45 (1), 2013, pp. 111-118
  26. Peter J. Stephenson and Paul A. Racey: Seasonal variation in resting metabolic rate and body temperature of streaked tenrecs, Hemicentetes nigriceps and H. semispinosus (Insectivora: Tenrecidae). Journal of Zoology 232, 1994, pp. 285-29
  27. Link E. Olson: Tenrecs. Current Biology 23 (1), 2013, pp. R5-R8
  28. ^ Peter J. Stephenson, Paul A. Racey, and Félix Rakotondraparany: Maintenance and reproduction of tenrecs (Tenrecidae) at Parc Tsimbazaza, Madagascar. International Zoo Yearbook 33, 1994, pp. 194-201
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