|density||2.4 Ew. / km²|
Tamanrasset ( Arabic تمنراست, DMG Tamanrāssat , Tuareg ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵏⵖⴰⵙⴻⵜ Tamanɣaset , colloquially Tam ) is the largest oasis in southern Algeria and, as a municipality with around 93,000 inhabitants, the capital of the Tamanrasset province .
Location, associated localities, population
Tamanrasset is about 1400 meters above sea level on the edge of the Ahaggar Mountains .
In addition to the main town Tamanrasset, the municipality also consists of the villages Amsel, Oukou, Tit, Assekrem , Tahifet, Tarhenanet, Tagmart, Talan Teidit, Efak, Ihelfène, Taghahaouhaout, In Dalag and Izernène .
The Tamanrasset oasis served as a caravan base even before the first Europeans arrived. Around 1885 the Tuareg of Haratin , who moved through this region and brought them here for this work, had gardens laid out. The result was a permanent settlement, which in 1910 already had 40 brick houses.
During the French colonial period , a unit of French camel riders was moved from Fort Motylinski , named after Adolphe de Calassanti Motylinski, the researcher of the Berber languages , to Tamanrasset in 1919 . There the soldiers built a fort, which they named Fort Laperrine in honor of a general of the camel riders . The steadily growing settlement around the fort bore this name until Algerian independence in 1962. In that year Tamanrasset already had an estimated 3000 inhabitants.
When the province of Tamanrasset (Wilāyat Tamanrāsat) was created in 1974, the eponymous city became the provincial capital. Until 1978, the 1000 km long road through the Ahaggar , which connects Tamanrasset with the northern parts of Algeria, was paved. Since then Tamanrasset has been easily accessible.
According to media reports, Tamanrasset is “one of the most important distribution centers for migrants on their way to Europe”.
Transport and infrastructure
Tamanrasset is now an important logistics center for the Trans-Saharan traffic between Algeria and Niger . It is located on the Trans- Saharan Route Algiers - In Salah - Tamanrasset - Agadez , part of the Algiers-Lagos Highway , which is part of the Trans-African Highways . The city has the best supply options in the region, several car workshops and an airport.
Sahara tourism is also very important for the city. It is a popular starting point for excursions to the neighboring Ahaggar Mountains , where the Hermitage of Charles de Foucauld is particularly popular.
A local attraction is the mausoleum of the Tuareg prince Moussa ag Amastan in the east of the city.
Due to the altitude, the oasis has a relatively temperate climate for the Sahara . The average annual rainfall is 46 mm (more than in other desert cities like In Salah ), spread over 16 rainy days. The average maximum temperature is 28.5 ° C and the average minimum temperature is 14 ° C.
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Tamanrasset
- Office national des statistiques (Algérie): Wilaya de Tamanrasset: répartition de la population résidente des ménages ordinaires et collectifs, selon la commune de résidence et la dispersion (2008). Retrieved January 7, 2015
- Journal officiel de la République Algérienne, December 19, 1984: Décret n ° 84-365, fixant la composition, la consistance et les limites territoriale des communes.
- François Gallice: Tamanrasset today . In: In the middle of the world. Charles de Foucauld today , , vol. 54 (2016), issue 205, pp. 26–31, here p. 26.
- François Gallice: Tamanrasset today . In: In the middle of the world. Charles de Foucauld today , vol. 54 (2016), issue 205, pp. 26–31, here p. 27.
- Hans-Christian Rößler: Umschlagplatz für Migranten - Merkel visits Algeria for the second time , in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung February 20, 2017, page 3 (Merkel's visit was canceled at short notice)
- Escape from Black Africa The Forgotten of the Sahara (Stranded in Tamanrasset), in: Der Spiegel Online June 26, 2012