Vril Society is the name of a fictional secret society that is said to have existed in Germany from the beginning to the middle of the twentieth century. In a number of conspiracy-theoretical and pseudo-historical texts it is claimed that she was involved in the rise of National Socialism and that she used supernatural energies to develop innovative aircraft during the time of National Socialism (so-called "NS-" or " Reichsflugplatten "). There is no historical evidence for the existence of a secret society of this name and the services attributed to it . Likewise, there is no evidence of the historical significance attributed by representatives of this legend to the “Vril Society” and some actually existing occult groups.
The novel The Coming Race and the term Vril
The word Vril comes from the published in 1871 novel The Coming Race ( The coming generation ) by the English writer Edward Bulwer-Lytton (1803-1873) and was probably from the Latin word virilis ( ',' powerful ', manfully) derived. In this novel, the narrator encounters an underground human race, the Vril-Ya , who have a psychic vital energy called Vril that is far superior to the human race . The Vril forces enable them to telepathy and telekinesis and enable them to influence any form of animate or inanimate matter for healing, raising the dead or for destruction. Originally a people who lived on the surface of the earth, the Vril-ya were cut off from the rest of humanity by a natural disaster and moved to an underground cave system in which they found a new home. There they developed in a history marked by wars and social upheavals through the discovery of a new natural force - the Vril force - to an egalitarian, eugenics- practicing society that is superior to all other races. Through contact with the narrator of the novel, the Vril-ya learn about the people who live on the surface of the earth and ask him in depth about human society. The narrator manages to escape from the realm of the Vril-ya and at the end of the novel he warns his readers of the danger that the Vril-ya would pose for mankind should they ever return to the surface.
Vril in theosophy and lay theories
While contemporary critics viewed The Coming Race as satire, other sections of the audience viewed it as an occult clef . In these circles the view was held that Bulwer-Lytton was a member of the Rosicrucians and that the "Vril" force was an actually existing, universal life force. According to this view, the novel was merely a vehicle with which Bulwer-Lytton wanted to convey secret knowledge to his readers under the guise of anonymity.
Helena Blavatsky and other occult authors adopted the term "Vril" as a synonym for secret natural forces that could only be used through magic . In Blavatsky's first work Isis unveiled ( The Unveiled Isis ), (1877) “Vril” was presented as a real, independently acting force.
In her second book The doctrine secret ( The Secret Doctrine ) described it in 1888, that the inhabitants of Atlantis were used Vril to build colossal structures. After the fall of Atlantis, a small group of surviving priests would have preserved this knowledge and passed it on only to a chosen few. This psychic energy should therefore allow the mastery of the whole of nature. Several books mention a Vril-ya club founded in London in 1904 , which is said to have taken up this topic. Bulwer-Lytton's writings are passed on in the New Thought movement.
It was particularly momentous that the theosophist William Scott-Elliot, in his The Story of Atlantis (German: Atlantis according to occult sources ) , published in 1896, described the Vril in connection with airships, which it served as the propulsion force. This property of the Vril, already described in The Coming Race , became a main reference for certain developments after the Second World War thanks to Scott-Elliot's explicit Atlantis association.
The further reception
As early as the mid-1890s, new scientific discoveries, e.g. B. the discovery of X-rays, to the opinion, also widespread among intellectuals, that natural science cannot claim to have finally solved the world riddle and that invisible natural forces and energies still existed. Occult theories were not only cited as counter-concepts to natural science, but common thematic points of contact were also seen. Many occult circles countered the discomfort caused by the materialism of the scientific and technical modernity by trying to formulate a doctrine of the mastery of earthly and cosmic forces on par with the natural sciences.
Around 1900, the areas of occultism and mysticism experienced a great boom, which lasted into the 1930s. Since theosophy was widespread at this time of the revival of occult currents, the “Vril” concept was also common in Germany in occultist circles. Bulwer-Lytton's primal force emerged above all in contexts in which it was a question of creating a “magic technique”, in whose designs the desire for a union of science and religion was expressed. A total of four translations of Bulwer-Lytton's book appeared in Germany between 1874 and 1924, including one that the anthroposophist Guenther Wachsmuth had obtained in 1922 at Rudolf Steiner's request . The term "Vril" was therefore known to a broader public in Germany until the 1920s. As a result, lay theories flourished claiming to be able to fill alleged scientific gaps without taking into account that Bulwer-Lytton was just trying to write a Jules Verne- style entertaining novel .
Development and content of the legends about the Vril societies
Before the Second World War , there was at least one private circle in Berlin whose members were specifically concerned with the “Vril” force. The few sources that prove the existence of this group of people later became one of the starting points for the development of the Vril Society legend.
The "truth society"
One of the sources of evidence for the existence of such a group is an article by the German rocket pioneer Willy Ley , which he published in the American science fiction magazine Astounding Science Fiction in 1947 . In it he tries to explain to his readers why National Socialism fell on fertile ground in Germany , and attributes this to the great popularity of irrational beliefs in pre-war Germany. He describes various examples of pseudoscientific and esoteric currents and in this context also mentions a particularly strange grouping in his eyes:
- “The next group was literally based on a novel. This group, which I believe called the Truth Society and was more or less based in Berlin, devoted their free time to the search for Vril. Yes, their beliefs were based on Bulwer-Lytton's 'The Coming Race'. They knew that the book was an invention, Bulwer-Lytton used this device to be able to tell the truth about this 'force'. Underground humanity was nonsense, Vril was not. It may have enabled the British, who guarded it as a state secret, to build their colonial empire . It was certainly owned by the Romans , enclosed in small metal balls that protected their homes and were known as lares . For reasons I couldn't see through, the secret of the Vril could be discovered by immersing oneself in contemplating the structure of an apple cut in half. No, I'm not kidding, that was what I was told with great solemnity and in secrecy. Such a group actually existed; she even published the first issue of a magazine in which she proclaimed her creed. (I wish I had kept some of these things, but the way things were, I had enough books smuggled out.) "
"Reich Working Group 'The Coming Germany'"
In 1930 two smaller pamphlets appeared, titled Weltdynamismus and "Vril". The cosmic elemental force , published by an occult circle that called itself the “Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft 'Das Coming Deutschland' (RAG).
The RAG claimed in it that it had a well-developed technique that was suitable for using the “Vril” power. The structure and functional principle of the machine described as well as the outlined political program are almost identical in structure and content in a brochure published by two Austrian authors as early as 1928, which propagates a perpetual motion machine that the Austrian Karl Schappeller is said to have invented. The RAG plans only differ in a few details. Overall, the impression is given that it is an improved version of Schappeller's machine, the function of which is not (pseudo-) physical, but occult-based. In one of the texts, the image of an apple cut in half is used as a model for the structure of the earth and its connection with the “space force” in a longer section. This and the contributions of proven Schappeller supporters suggest that it was mainly supporters of the Austrian inventor who contributed to the RAG publications.
From another publication of the RAG, the magazine for world dynamism , it becomes clear that the RAG was founded in 1930 in Berlin by a certain Johannes Täufer . Anabaptist also drew for the brochure “Vril”. The cosmic elemental force is responsible, but nothing further is known about his person. The name is probably a pseudonym , and it has been suggested that it may have been the publisher Otto Wilhelm Barth , who published two of the RAG fonts. Fritz Klein, a sponsor of Schappeller, whose writings were recommended by the RAG, could also have hidden behind it.
Summary of the research situation
A comparison between Ley's memoirs and the content of the RAG writings allows the conclusion that the “truth society” and the RAG could actually have been the same grouping. However, it seems to have had only short-term and marginal importance in the occult scene of the time. The RAG cannot be found in official registers, and there are no documents about its publications at the time in the archives of Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag. Neither the magazine for world dynamism nor the archive for alchemical research , which was published jointly with it, published further issues. For the period after 1930, there are no documents that prove the continued existence of the RAG or an influence on other circles. Neither can RAG's claim that it has a “Vril” technology be taken as evidence that it has actually succeeded in using it. Above all, however, it does not seem to be important for the invention of a Vril society after 1945 whether Willy Ley actually referred to the RAG: As will become clear below, later authors were at best inspired by Ley's statements for their own fantasies . Nonetheless, this grouping later formed a central building block for the justification of the legends of the secret work of a “Vril Society” in Germany from the 1920s to 1940s.
The making of the legends
In the period after the Second World War, numerous conspiracy-theoretical and pseudo-historical interpretations of the Third Reich developed, in which occult elements played a central role. In this context, the “Vril” concept and the references to occultist groups mentioned were also cited as historical evidence. The earliest reference to an alleged secret society called "Vril Society" can be found in a publication from 1960. Since then, the topic has been taken up again and again in several variants in conspiracy theoretic and esoteric literature until recently . While the first variants of this legend still rejected National Socialism, newer versions of the legend directly or indirectly serve a positive reinterpretation of the Third Reich.
Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier
For the first time the existence of a “Vril Society” was asserted by the French authors Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier . In their book Le matin des magiciens ( Departure into the Third Millennium ) , published in 1960, they advocated the thesis that the Nazi leadership had tried to forge alliances with supernatural powers. An occult secret society played a central role in these endeavors. Citing Willy Ley's statements and allegedly self-carried out but unspecified research, they claimed that this union had called itself the “Vril Society” or “The Lodge of the Brothers of Light” (English “Luminous Lodge”). The “Vril Society” had close contacts to the Theosophical Society , the Rosicrucians and especially the Thule Society and was an important Nazi organization.
The sect that Ley remembers bears only superficial resemblance to the “Vril Society” in the book Dawning into the Third Millennium . The authors never provided further evidence for their extensive speculation, including the alleged names of this group. Their claims must therefore be classified as fictions. In addition, historical research came to the conclusion that the occult groups existing at the time (for example the Thule Society) had no significant influence on Hitler and the NSDAP . Connections between occult ideas and the worldview of individual National Socialists (especially Himmler) can be proven, but do not support the thesis that these occult circles had a comprehensive, systematic influence on Hitler and the entire National Socialist leadership.
Pauwels and Bergier's book inspired other authors to speculate about the alleged role of the “Vril Society”, such as J. H. Brennan or Trevor Ravenscroft . They also claim that there were close relationships between the Thule Society, the Vril Society and the Nazi leadership, but this is only based on speculation and pseudo-facts.
Norbert Jürgen-Ratthofer / Ralf Ettl and Jan Udo Holey
In the 1990s the legend of the “Vril Society” was further developed. In 1992, Norbert Jürgen-Ratthofer and Ralf Ettl linked them in their work Das Vril-Projekt with the older myth of the “ Nazi flying disks ”. According to them, the "Vril Society" developed from the Thule Society and pursued esoteric studies. At the beginning of the 1920s, the Aldebarans established telepathic contacts with her and with an inner circle of the SS , through which they received plans to build a flying machine. In 1922, the “Vril Society” is said to have built a saucer-shaped flying ship, the so-called “Beyond Flying Machine”, on the basis of this information. Via various intermediate steps, in which the Austrian inventor Viktor Schauberger is said to have been involved, this supposedly led to the construction of a version ("V7"), with which members of the "Vril Society" are said to have traveled to Aldebaran in 1945 . In addition, other saucer-shaped aircraft (with names such as "Vril" and "Haunebu") were developed, with the help of which members of the Vril Society and the SS finally settled in the Antarctic New Swabia in 1945 .
Jürgen-Ratthofer and Ettl were members of the so-called Tempelhof Society, which had been active since the 1980s under the aegis of their "Grand Commander" Hans-Günter Fröhlich. The Tempelhof Society brought out several small publications and organized regular meetings that prove their connections in the German-speaking right-wing extremist network of the time. The first comprehensive publication of the Tempelhof Society appeared in 1987 under the title Insight into the magical worldview and the magical processes . Excerpts from this publication and from articles in the right-wing extremist magazine CODE show that an exchange took place between the members of the Tempelhof Society and the circle around Wilhelm Landig , which mainly revolved around the Sumerian / Babylonian origins of the Germans and the concept of the black sun . The publications of the Tempelhof Society played a key role in connecting this esoteric concept of the black sun , which has been discussed in the circle around Landig since the 1950s .
The text The Vril Project , published by the Tempelhof Society, was originally little known. The legend attracted more attention when it was picked up by Jan Udo Holey and reached a wider readership through his books. Holey, who is assigned to brown esotericism , published the book Secret Societies and Their Power in the 20th Century under the pseudonym "Jan van Helsing" in 1993, which is said to have sold 100,000 times by 1996 alone. In it he reproduces the scenario of Jürgen-Ratthofer and Ettl, but without clearly indicating their authorship. Her writing is listed in Holey's bibliography, but there is no reference to her authorship in the corresponding chapter. In his 1997 book Company Aldebaran , Holey repeated this scenario and expanded it with more extensive references to Nazi UFOs and to secret bases in Antarctica.
Variations of this legend can also be found in more recent publications by other authors, e.g. B. with Heiner Gehring and Karl-Heinz Zunneck, in the Study Buddhism , in the Arcanorum Causam Nostrum , with Armin Risi and last but not least with Henry Stevens.
Other variations of the legend focus more on the alleged role of a woman who was mentioned as early as 1992 in the Vril project by Jürgen-Ratthofer and Ettl and also later in Holey: a medium named Maria Oršić. According to the Vril project , Maria Oršić, who comes from Zagreb (Croatia), was involved in founding the “Vril Society” and also established spiritual contact with the Aldebarans.
In a later text that circulated anonymously on the Internet, the character of Maria Oršić changed from a minor character to a central protagonist. This text claims that Maria Oršić, who came from Vienna, founded the “Pan-German Society for Metaphysics” in Munich in 1919 or 1921, which was linked to the “Vril Society”. According to this text, the originally only female members of this society dealt with magical energies that are connected to the “Vril power”. In connection with the use of these "vibrational magic" energies, the protest against the short hair fashion of the 1920s and the wearing of long hairstyles played an important role. These energies should also serve to drive what are known as "otherworldly flying machines", in whose construction they were involved. According to the text, the “Drive Technology Workshops” were later formed from the “Pan-German Society for Metaphysics”. There are other scientists and technicians, including a Munich professor named “W. O. Schumann ”, was involved in the development of Reichsflugplatten and other armaments projects.
After the dissolution of the Tempelhof Society, Ralf Ettl founded the Causa Nostra Circle of Friends, which continues to disseminate such ideas, sometimes in modified form, to this day. The Causa Nostra maintains connections with the Swiss Unitall publishing house, whose publications process the ideas of the Tempelhof Society / Causa Nostra in the form of novels and non-fiction books.
The myth of the Nazi UFOs arose independently of the authors mentioned and was essentially shaped by the writings of Miguel Serrano , Ernst Zündel and Wilhelm Landig . The graphic representations of German flying disks circulating today are mostly based on drawings that were distributed in the 1980s by Ralf Ettl's Abraxas Videofilm Produktionsgesellschaft mbH and that appear for the first time in the publications of D. H. Haarmann and O. Bergmann. The drawings are apparently inspired by photos in George Adamski's UFO classics.
There is no verifiable evidence for the scenarios described, the books only contain a few illustrations of questionable origin. Reliable evidence for the references to the groups discussed above and to real people in contemporary history are not presented. The authors refer to messages conveyed by the media and anonymous informants (see e.g.), which evade any verification. The group of topics seems to find positive response, especially in circles of right-wing esotericism and esoteric neo-Nazism . It is characteristic of this trend, which has been observed for several years, that the “Third Reich” is being reinterpreted and positively upgraded from the perspective of esoteric worldviews. Concepts originally developed there, such as the black sun, have now also had a significant impact on popular culture outside of these circles, as can be seen, for example, in computer games such as Wolfenstein .
No reliable sources have been presented on the life and work of Maria Oršić and the members of the society she allegedly led. Nevertheless, in the wake of the publications of the “right-wing extremist esoteric” Jan Udo Holey, a number of neo-pagan, partly also neo-Nazi publications, secret orders and a novel that is dedicated to the life and work of Maria Oršić and the “Vril Society” and claims to be Facts to be based.
Not least through a publication by the authors Peter Bahn and Heiner Gehring, in which an attempt was made to support the concept of a "primal energy" on which all other forms of energy are based, by referring to the historical tradition of this concept, the topics of "Vril" power were found and “Vril Society” also attracts attention in those circles who believe in the reality of a so-called “free energy”. The “Vril” concept was also used by representatives of the “brown esotericism” to positively reinterpret the Third Reich. References to Bahns and Gehring's interpretation of the RAG can be found, for example, in the publications of the Sonnenwacht Association, which, according to critics, "uses neo-pagan esotericism as a cover for right-wing extremism".
Literature on the background and criticism of the legends
- Alan Baker: Invisible eagle. The history of Nazi occultism . Virgin, London 2000, ISBN 1-85227-863-3 . (English)
- HT Hakl : National Socialism and Occultism . In: Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke: The Occult Roots of National Socialism . Marix-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-937715-48-7 , pp. 194-217. (German translation; English original title: The occult roots of nazism .)
- Cis van Heertum: Exploring alchemy in the early 20th century ( Memento from April 19, 2006 in the Internet Archive ). Exploring alchemy in the early 20th century . Exploring alchemy in the early 20th century, part 1 and Exploring alchemy in the early 20th century, part 2 . ritmanlibrary.com, 2006
- Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke : The Occult Roots of National Socialism . Wiesbaden: Marix-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-937715-48-7 (new edition of the first German-language edition from 1997)
- Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke: Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity . New York UP, New York 2002, ISBN 0-8147-3124-4 , German: In the shadow of the "Black Sun". Aryan cults, esoteric National Socialism and the politics of demarcation. Marix, Wiesbaden 2009
- Julian Strube: The invention of esoteric National Socialism under the sign of the black sun . In: Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft , 20/2, 2012, pp. 223–268.
- Julian Strube: Vril. An occult elemental force in theosophy and esoteric neo-Nazism . Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich / Paderborn 2013, ISBN 978-3-7705-5515-4 .
Texts in which variants of the legend are represented by the Vril Society
- Peter Bahn, Heiner Gehring: The Vril Myth . Omega Verlag, Düsseldorf 1997, ISBN 3-930243-03-2
- Heiner Gehring, Karl-Heinz Zunneck: Flying disks over Neuschwabenland. The truth about "Vril", "Haunebu" and the Templar community of heirs . Jochen Kopp Verlag , Rottenburg 2005, ISBN 3-938516-00-3
- Jan van Helsing: Secret societies and their power in the 20th century or how not to rule the world: A guide through the entanglement of logism with high finance and politics; Trilateral Commission, Bilderberger, CFR, UNO . Ewert, Rhede (Ems) 1993, ISBN 3-89478-069-X
- Jan van Helsing: Aldebaran company. Contacts with people from another solar system . Ewertverlag, Lathen (Ems) 1997, ISBN 3-89478-220-X
- Norbert Jürgen-Ratthofer, Ralf Ettl: The Vril Project. The final battle for the earth . Vienna, STM-Tempelhof, 1992 (The font was never published by a publisher. A typescript is circulating on the Internet and by mail order)
- Louis Pauwels, Jacques Bergier: Le matin des magiciens: introduction au realisme fantastique . Gallimard, Paris 1960
- German: Departure into the third millennium. From the future of fantastic reason . Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, Munich 1976, ISBN 3-453-00638-0 (unchanged paperback edition of the first German-language edition from 1962)
- Sven Peters: The secret existence life of Maria Ortisch . Argo Verlag, ISBN 978-3-937987-45-3
- Trevor Ravenscroft : The Spear of Fate. The story of the holy lance .: Universitas, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-8004-1166-0
- Armin Risi: Change of power on earth: the plans of the mighty, global decisions and the turning point . 5th edition. Govinda, Zurich 2006, ISBN 3-906347-81-8
- Henry Stevens: Hitler's flying saucers. A Guide to German Flying Discs of the Second World War . Adventures Unlimited Press, Kempton IL 2003, ISBN 1-931882-13-4
Historical sources used to construct the legend
- Edward Bulwer-Lytton: The Coming Race . Edinburgh 1871
- Edward Bulwer-Lytton: The Coming Gender . Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-423-12720-1
- Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft “Das Coming Deutschland” (Ed.): Weltdynamismus. Forays into new technical territory using biological symbols . Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag, Berlin 1930 (German National Library Leipzig, Sig .: 1930 A 3927)
- John Baptist: "Vril". The cosmic elemental force. Atlantis rebirth. Edited on behalf of the Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft “Das kommende Deutschland” . Astrological Verlag Wilhelm Becker, Berlin 1930 (German National Library Leipzig, Sig .: 1930 A 5652)
- Otto Wilhelm Barth (Ed.): Journal for world dynamism . In: Archives for Alchemistic Research (Alchemistische Blätter, Volume 2) . Volume 2, Issue 2, Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag, Berlin 1930 (journal database of the German National Library, ID: 526573-3)
- Willy Ley: Pseudoscience in Naziland . In: Astounding Science Fiction . 39/3, May 1947, pp. 90–98 (journal database of the German National Library, ID: 84450-0)
- ↑ Goodrick-Clarke, 2002, p. 113; Goodrick-Clarke refers to the neuter form virile .
- ↑ Günther Jürgensmeier: Notes . In: Edward Bulwer-Lytton: The Coming Gender . dtv, Munich, 1999, pp. 224–250, here: p. 228.
- ↑ Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke: The Occult Roots of National Socialism , marixverlag GmbH 2009. P. 187.
- ^ David Seed: Introduction . In: Edward Bulwer-Lytton: The Coming Race . Wesleyan University Press, 2005, pp. Xiii.
- ↑ Cf. on this Günther Jürgensmeier: Afterword . In: Edward Bulwer-Lytton: The Coming Gender . dtv, Munich 1999, pp. 185-213, p. 186
- ↑ Marco Frenschkowski : The secret societies. A cultural and historical analysis. Marixverlag, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-86539-926-7 . Pp. 168-172.
- ↑ Strube, 2013, pp. 65–69.
- ↑ a b Goodrick-Clarke, 2002, p. 113
- ↑ Goodrick-Clarke, 2004, pp. 24-25.
- ^ David Seed: Introduction . In: Edward Bulwer-Lytton: The Coming Race . Wesleyan University Press, 2005, pp. Xl-xli.
- ↑ Strube, 2013, pp. 71–74.
- ↑ Strube, 2013, especially p. 69ff.
- ↑ Strube, 2013, pp. 85f.
- ↑ Priska Pytlik: Occultism and Modernity . Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2005, pp. 9-11; see. Strube, 2013, pp. 86-97.
- ↑ Sabine Doering-Manteuffel : The occult. A success story in the shadow of the Enlightenment . Siedler-Verlag, Munich 2008, pp. 183-184.
- ↑ Priska Pytlik: Occultism and Modernity . Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2005, p. 9.
- ↑ a b c d e van Heertum, 2006
- ↑ Strube, 2013, especially pp. 85–97, 193–197.
- ^ Gerhard Lindenstruth: Edward Bulwer Lytton. A bibliography of publications in the German-speaking area . Private printing, Giessen 1994, p. 28
- ↑ Edward Bulwer-Lytton: Vril or a human future . The coming day, Stuttgart 1922.
- ↑ Guenther Wachsmuth: Foreword by the translator . In: Edward Bulwer-Lytton: Vril or a humanity of the future . 5th edition. Rudolf Geering-Verlag, Dornach 2003, p. 6.
- ↑ Strube, 2013, especially pp. 98–143.
- ↑ Ley, 1947, pp. 90-98.
- ↑ Goodrick-Clarke, 2004; Baker, 2000.
- ↑ Ley, 1947, pp. 92-93.
- ^ Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft “Das Coming Deutschland” (Ed.), 1930.
- ^ Baptist, Johannes, 1930.
- ↑ Strube, 2013, pp. 98–123.
- ↑ F. Wetzel, L. Gföllner: Raumkraft. Your development and evaluation by Karl Schappeller . Herold Verlag, Munich 1928.
- ↑ Strube, 2013, pp. 109–123.
- ^ Otto Wilhelm Barth (ed.), 1930.
- ↑ Zeitschrift für Weltdynamismus , 1930, p. 15.
- ^ Bahn & Gehring, 1997, p. 91.
- ↑ Strube, 2013, pp. 111–114.
- ↑ Goodrick-Clarke, 2004, p. 166.
- ↑ a b Töpfer, 1998
- ^ Bahn & Gehring, 1997, p. 105.
- ↑ Strube, 2013, especially pp. 131–134.
- ↑ Strube, 2013, pp. 126–142.
- ↑ Goodrick-Clarke, 2002, 2004; Hakl, 2004; Strube, 2012; Strube, 2013, pp. 142-189.
- ↑ Goodrick-Clarke, 2004, pp. 187-189; Hakl, 2004, p. 194; Strube, 2013, pp. 126-142.
- ↑ Pauwels & Bergier, 1976, pp. 302-393.
- ↑ Goodrick-Clarke, 2004; Hakl, 2004; Strube, 2012.
- ^ JH Brennan: Occult Reich . Futura Publications, London 1976.
- ^ Ravenscroft, 1988.
- ↑ Goodrick-Clarke, 2004, pp. 189-193.
- ↑ Norbert Jürgen-Ratthofer, Ralf Ettl., 1992
- ↑ Strube, 2012, pp. 239-251.
- ↑ Norbert Jürgen-Ratthofer, Ralf Ettl, 1992; see. also Meining, 2002.
- ↑ Strube, 2012, pp. 243–245.
- ↑ a b c Strube, 2012.
- ^ Friedrich Paul Heller: The language of hatred. Brown esotericism, Jan van Helsing, new rights and right-wing extremism . Butterfly, Stuttgart 2001, p. 160 and others; see. Strube, 2012, pp. 251-252.
- ↑ Petri, Franko (1998). The world conspiracy myth. A kaleidoscope of political esotericism. In: Helmut Reinalter, Franko Petri, Rüdiger Kaufmann (ed.), The world view of right-wing extremism. The structures of the desolidarization . Studien-Verlag, Innsbruck, ISBN 3-7065-1258-0 , pp. 188-223.
- ↑ a b Van Helsing, 1993, chap. 29
- ↑ a b Van Helsing, 1997, pp. 122–156
- ↑ Gehring & Zunneck, 2005, pp. 65–68.
- ↑ Alexander Berzin: The Nazi Connection with Shambhala and Tibet . 2003, The Nazis' Relationship with Shambala and Tibet .
- ^ Freundeskreis Causa Nostra (ed.): Arcanorum Causam Nostrum . Publishing house Günter Höhler, Küps / Ofr. 2005, ISBN 3-9810358-5-2 .
- ↑ Risi, 2000, p. 480ff.
- ↑ Stevens, 2003.
- ↑ Norbert Jürgen-Ratthofer, Ralf Ettl, 1992, p. 12 ff.
- ↑ The name also appears in other spellings in the relevant texts, e.g. B. Ortic, Orschitsch, Orsitsch, Ortisch or Ortitsch.
- ^ De Mental-Ray: The Vril Project . - This text (an extensively expanded version of the text Vril-Projekt by Jürgen-Ratthofer & Ettl) is only available as a PDF file circulating on the Internet (without clearly identifiable authorship and without a precisely definable first publication date; some text passages indicate that it was created from Assume year 1999).
- ^ De Mental-Ray: The Vril Project . P. 115ff., P. 183ff., P. 188ff.
- ↑ Strube, 2012, pp. 253-260.
- ↑ Miguel Serrano: The golden ribbon: Esoteric Hitlerism . 1978, ISBN 3-926179-20-1 .
- ↑ Christof Friedrich (so Zündel's pseudonym ): UFO's - Nazi Secret Weapon? . Samisdat Publishers, 1974 (only available on the Internet or by mail order).
- ^ Wilhelm Landig: Götzen against Thule - a novel full of reality . Pfeiffer, Hannover 1971, ISBN 3-87632-208-1 .
- ^ Wilhelm Landig: Wolf time for Thule . Volkstum-Verlag Landig, Vienna 1980, ISBN 3-85342-033-8 .
- ↑ Wilhelm Landig: Rebels for Thule - the legacy of Atlantis . Volkstum-Verlag, Vienna 1991.
- ↑ a b c Meining, 2002
- ↑ Rüdiger Sünner: Black Sun: Unleashing and Abuse of Myths in National Socialism and Right Esotericism . Herder, Freiburg 2001, ISBN 3-451-05205-9 .
- ↑ Strube, 2012, pp. 247–249.
- ↑ Gehring & Zunneck, 2005, pp. 60–63.
- ↑ a b Pöhlmann, 2002
- ^ Goodrick-Clarke, 2002.
- ↑ Christiansen et al., 2006.
- ^ Strube, 2012.
- ↑ Constitutional Protection Report 2004 ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ; PDF; 3.5 MB) Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, p. 106.
- ↑ Sven Peters: Secret existence - life of Maria Ortisch . Argo 2008, ISBN 978-3-937987-45-3 .
- ^ Bahn & Gehring, 1997.
- ↑ z. B. Gisela Bongart: Free Energy Revolution for a New Age . 1999, "The Vril Myth" .
- ↑ Christiansen et al., 2006, p. 183.