Wilhelm Haarmann (chemist)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Reimer and Haarmann ca.1878
Wilhelm Haarmann around 1921

Gustav Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm Haarmann (born May 24, 1847 in Holzminden ; † March 6, 1931 in Höxter ) was a German chemist who, together with Ferdinand Tiemann, succeeded in the first synthesis of vanillin in 1874 .

life and work

Haarmann began his studies in 1866 at the Bergakademie Clausthal , then studied chemistry in Göttingen with Friedrich Wöhler and from 1869 in Berlin with August Wilhelm von Hofmann . In 1872 he did his doctorate as an external in Göttingen with a dissertation "About some derivatives of the glucosides coniferin and salicin " . He interrupted his scientific work because of the Franco-Prussian War and only continued his work at Hofmann in 1872.

Haarmann was close friends with Ferdinand Tiemann through studies with August Wilhelm von Hofmann and military service . In 1873 the Holzminden pharmacist Wilhelm Kubel Hofmann offered his materials for cambial juice preparations for further investigations. In the spring of 1874, both succeeded in the oxidative breakdown of the side chains of coniferin to glucovanillin, which could be broken down into glucose and vanillin by treatment with the enzyme emulsin .

In the summer of 1874, Tiemann and Haarmann founded Haarmann's vanilla factory in Holzminden for the large-scale use of this new type of synthesis route . As brother-in-law of August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Tiemann aspired to an academic career and therefore only participated in the company as a silent and advisory partner. The first German patent was applied for in the summer of 1877. In 1876 he received the Cothenius Medal of the Leopoldina .

Together with another student of Hofmann's, Karl Reimer , Haarmann succeeded in producing vanillin from eugenol , a component of clove oil, more cheaply . An isoeugenol process developed by Tiemann in 1891 further reduced manufacturing costs and made vanillin production profitable. In 1893, the production of the violet flavor Ionon was started using a process invented by Tiemann.

Reimer joined the company in 1876, which was then called Haarmann & Reimer . It was bought by Bayer AG in 1953 and merged with Symrise in 2003.


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Wilhelm Haarmann accepted into the Society of German Chemists in Berlin on June 13, 1870 as a student. Member.
  2. a b Otto Nikolaus Witt : Ferdinand Tiemann. A picture of life . In: Ber. d. German chem. Ges. 34, 1901. pp. 4430-4455. doi : 10.1002 / cber.190103403176 , p. 4421.
  3. ^ Tiemann and Kubel were fellow students
  4. W. Kubel: Coniferin - a glucoside from the cambial sap of the conifers . In: Journal für Praktische Chemie 97, 1866, pp. 243-246.
  5. F. Tiemann and W. Haarmann: About coniferin and its transformation into the aromatic principle of vanilla . In: Ber. German Chem. Ges. 7, 1874, pp. 608-623. ( Digitized on Gallica ).
  6. Chem. Zentralblatt 5, 1873, p. 652 ; CR Acad. Sci. 79, 1874, p. 635 . - Date of foundation August 1, 1874 .
  7. Patent DE 576 , filed July 13, 1877.