Dwarf eyebright ( Euphrasia minima )
|Jacq. ex DC.|
The dwarf eyebright is a dainty, annual herbaceous plant and reaches heights of 2 to 15 centimeters. The stem is upright and mostly unbranched, but branched in larger individuals. The leaves are up to 15 millimeters long and have one to four awnless teeth.
The flowering period extends from July to September. The flowers sit individually in the upper leaf axils. The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic . The white or yellow crown is 5 to 7 millimeters long. The dark pharyngeal veins and the yellow sap mark are striking . The upper lip is folded up and brownish to purple. The lower lip is in three parts.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 44.
This species was one of the few annual plants in the alpine flora . All energy is directed to the reproductive organs to give the seedlings a good start. A high proportion of the mother plant's nitrogen production is channeled into the seeds, which are ready to germinate in autumn and overwinter under the snow .
Although a single plant is very small, if it occurs in bulk it can significantly reduce grazing yield.
Systematics and distribution
Euphrasia minima was first published in 1805 by Nikolaus Joseph Freiherr von Jacquin in Augustin Pyramus de Candolle and Lamarck : Flore Francaise, ou Descriptions Succinctes de Toutes les Plantes qui Croissent Naturellement en France ... , 3rd edition, 3, page 473.
The distribution area of the dwarf eyebright includes the Alps and the European mountains from the Pyrenees to the Balkans . Dwarf eyebright is common in Austria - it is absent in Burgenland and Vienna .
The following subspecies can be distinguished from Euphrasia minima :
- Euphrasia minima DC. subsp. minima : It occurs in Spain , France , Corsica , Italy , Germany , Austria , Switzerland , on the Balkan Peninsula , in Romania , Bulgaria and Poland .
- Euphrasia minima subsp. davisii Yeo : It occurs in Turkey .
- Euphrasia minima subsp. masclansii O.Bolòs & Vigo : It occurs in Spain.
- Euphrasia minima subsp. sicardii ( herdsmen ) O.Bolòs & Vigo : It occurs in Spain.
- Euphrasia minima subsp. tatrae (competition) Hayek : It occurs in Poland, Slovakia , Romania, Bulgaria and Ukraine .
- Xaver Finkenzeller, Jürke Grau: Alpine flowers. Recognize and determine (= Steinbach's natural guide ). Mosaik, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-576-11482-3 .
- Wolfgang Adler, Karl Oswald, Raimund Fischer: Excursion flora of Austria . Ed .: Manfred A. Fischer. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart / Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-8001-3461-6 .
- Wendelberger: Alpine plants - flowers, grasses, dwarf shrubs , Munich 1984, ISBN 3-7632-2975-2 .
- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . With the collaboration of Angelika Schwabe and Theo Müller. 8th, heavily revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 , pp. 853 .
- Erhard Dörr, Wolfgang Lippert : Flora of the Allgäu and its surroundings. Volume 2, IHW, Eching 2004, ISBN 3-930167-61-1 , p. 466.
- Karol Marhold, 2011: Scrophulariaceae : Datasheet Euphrasia minima In: Euro + Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity.
- Euphrasia minima Jacq. ex DC., Alpine eyebright. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Dwarf eyebright . In: BiolFlor, the database of biological-ecological characteristics of the flora of Germany.
- Profile and distribution map for Bavaria . In: Botanical Information Hub of Bavaria .
- Euphrasia minima Schleich. In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora . Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Thomas Meyer: Eyebright yellow data sheet with identification key and photos at Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland (old name of the website: Flowers in Swabia ).