Austrian student body
|State level||Federal level|
|legal form||Public corporation|
|At sight||Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Research|
|founding||1945 as an Austrian student body|
|Headquarters||Vienna 4 , Taubstummengasse 7–9|
|management||Adrijana Novaković (Chair)|
|Budget volume||approx. 12.3 million euros (2013)|
The Austrian Students' Union ( ÖH , Austrian Students' Union until 2005 , often shortened to Austrian Students' Union ) is the legal representative of students at Austrian universities of applied sciences , universities of teacher education , universities and private universities . Membership in the ÖH is compulsory , which means that all students are automatically members of the student body. The ÖH is thus roughly comparable with the student bodies in Germany or the Austrian Chamber of Labor and Economic Chamber at student level. The chairmanship of the ÖH is currently Adrijana Novaković ( GRAS ).
The ÖH was established in September 1945 by an ordinance of the provisional state government and regulated by federal law from 1950. Before that, the Austrian student bodies had belonged to the German student body from 1919 to 1945 , which in turn had been ruled by the National Socialist German Student Union since 1931 . In the years 1933 to 1938, the Austrian Students' Union was established as an Austro-Fascist counter - organization , which had a strong personal and structural influence on the later ÖH.
In contrast to the West German student committees after the war, for example, the ÖH committees were elected according to list voting right from the start and accordingly dominated by more or less party-affiliated groups. For decades, the determining force was the Austrian Student Union (ÖSU), which is close to the ÖVP and from which today's Action Community emerged in the early 1980s .
The chairmen of the nationwide student council since 1945:
- 1945–1946 Rudolf Wengraf (independent)
- 1946–1947 Karl Leutgeb ( FÖST / Union )
- 1947 Fritz Köhler (FÖST / Union)
- 1947–1949 Franz Bauer (Union)
- 1949–1951 Alexander Kragora (Union)
- 1951–1954 Norbert Burda ( electoral block )
- 1954–1955 Günther Wiesinger (electoral block)
- 1955–1957 Alfred Wittmann (electoral block)
- 1957–1959 Herbert Mauser (voting block)
- 1959–1961 Ludwig Koller (electoral block)
- 1961–1963 Hans Blaickner (electoral block)
- 1963–1965 Heinzpeter Thiel (electoral block)
- 1965–1967 Hermann Kert (electoral block)
- 1967–1969 Sepp G. Bieler (electoral block)
- 1969–1971 Max Ortner ( ÖSU )
- 1971–1972 Ernst Streeruwitz (ÖSU)
- 1972–1974 Hubert Pototschnigg (ÖSU)
- 1974 Georg Schneider (ÖSU)
- 1974–1975 Stefan Kekeiss ( DSU )
- 1975–1976 Georg Schneider (ÖSU)
- 1976–1977 Georg Karasek (ÖSU)
- 1977–1979 Fritz Pesendorfer (ÖSU)
- 1979–1981 Fritz Lennkh (ÖSU)
- 1981–1983 Josef Stockinger (ÖSU)
- 1983–1985 Herbert Rainer ( AG )
- 1985–1987 Michael Goldinger (AG)
- 1987–1989 Stefan Szyszkowitz (AG)
- 1989–1991 Walter Marschitz (AG)
- 1991–1993 Thomas Frad (AG)
- 1993–1995 Markus Kaiser (AG)
- 1995–1997 Agnes Berlakovich ( VSStÖ )
- 1997–1999 Wolfgang Gattringer (AG)
- 1999–2001 Martin Faißt (AG)
- 2001–2002 Anita Weinberger ( GRAS )
- 2002–2003 Andrea Mautz (VSStÖ)
- 2003-2004 Patrice Fuchs (VSStÖ)
- 2004-2005 Barbara Wittinger (GRAS)
- 2005-2006 Rosa Bernadette Nentwich-Bouchal (GRAS)
- 2006-2007 Barbara Blaha (VSStÖ)
- 2007-2008 Hartwig Brandl ( FLÖ )
- 2008-2009 Samir Al-Mobayyed (AG)
- 2009–2011 Sigrid Maurer (GRAS)
- 2011–2012 Janine Wulz (GRAS)
- 2012–2013 Martin Schott (FLÖ)
- 2013-2014 Florian Kraushofer (FLÖ)
- 2014–2015 Viktoria Spielmann (GRAS)
- 2015-2016 Philip Flacke (FLÖ)
- 2016–2017 Lucia Grabetz (VSStÖ)
- 2017-2018 Johanna Zechmeister (FLÖ)
- 2018–2019 Hannah Lutz (VSStÖ)
- since 2019 Adrijana Novaković (GRAS)
The Austrian student body represents students throughout the country. The 2014 amendment standardized the representation structure for all higher education sectors.
- The Federal Representation (BV) (formerly: Central Committee, ZA) represents the interests of all students across Austria, advises students in various presentations and also publishes brochures on study-related topics.
- At universities (universities as well as technical colleges, teacher training colleges and private universities with more than 1000 students on average in the last three years), student bodies represent the students of a university as public bodies.
- At universities of applied sciences, universities of teacher education and private universities with fewer than 1000 students on average in the last three years, there are university representatives that are legally represented by the federal representative body.
- The university representatives are elected on the basis of list voting and, depending on the organizational form of the respective university, can set up additional organs such as faculty representatives, departmental representatives, etc. in their statutes. These must be specified in the statutes.
- All university representatives are required to set up a department for educational policy, social policy and economic affairs (economic department). Further presentations are to be specified in the statutes.
- The student representatives (StV) (formerly: Studienrichtungsvertretung, StRV) exist for each individual course. They advise students who are completing or want to complete the respective course and are contact points for problems with the course or teachers. They are elected directly on the basis of a personality right to choose.
- In addition, there are chairman conferences (VoKo) for the respective university sectors.
The university representatives as corporations (and usually their individual organs or representative bodies) are autonomous in their sphere of activity and are not bound by instructions or resolutions of other student bodies (not even the Austrian student body).
The ÖH is financed by contributions that all students have to pay each semester. This is adjusted every year according to the consumer price index and rounded up to half or full euros. In addition, 0.70 euros are charged for liability and accident insurance. This results in the current ÖH fee of 20.20 euros for the 2019/20 academic year.
|Starting amount||VPI 10,
|Indexing for 18/19||Student fee 18/19 ("ÖH fee")||Special contribution 18/19||Total contribution|
|18.00 euros||110.1||114.0||18.64 euros||19.00 euros||0.70 euros||19.70 euros|
|according to Section 38 (2) HSG 2014||according to Statistics Austria||= 18.00 * 114.00 / 110.10||Rounding acc. Section 38 (3) HSG 2014||Student insurance||Contribution levied per semester|
The ÖH contribution to universities without insurance is divided as follows: 13% go to the ÖH federal representation, 87% to the university representatives and thus also to the student representatives.
The ÖH contribution without insurance at universities of teacher education, technical colleges and private universities is divided as follows: 5% goes to the ÖH federal representation, 95% to the university representatives and thus also to the student representatives.
There is a certain contribution, the so-called base amount, which is evenly distributed among all university representatives at the universities. The rest is divided according to the number of students at the respective universities.
With the amendment in 2014, students at private universities became members of the ÖH again. Due to an amendment to the University of Applied Sciences Studies Act at the end of 2007, however, students in the University of Applied Sciences degree programs are members of the ÖH. By joining the ÖH, the FH students are represented nationwide for the first time.
The representatives are elected every two years in May every odd year. While voter turnout in the first two decades was still in the range of 60 to 70%, it fell from around 70% in 1965 to just under 40% (1975) within a decade. In 1985 it fell below the 30% mark for the first time, around which it has since fluctuated with relatively small fluctuations; In 2013 it was 27.97% and in 2017 it was just under 25%. Critics therefore accuse the ÖH of not being sufficiently legitimized and of not being taken seriously in its core task of professional representation. On the other hand, it is pointed out again and again that the turnout in ÖH elections is still relatively high in an international comparison. The political work within the ÖH is organized in parliamentary groups, some of which are close to the political parties:
- AG - AktionGemeinschaft (student forum ), close to the ÖVP , officially independent of parties
- FLÖ - Independent student council lists of Austria, non-party
- FEST - Group of committed students, non-party association of mandataries mainly from universities of applied sciences
- GRAS - Greens & alternative students, run-up organization of the Greens
- JUNOS - Young Liberal Students, NEOS run-up organization
- KSV - Communist Student Association
- RFS - Ring of Freedom Students, apron organization of the FPÖ
- VSStÖ - Association of Socialist Students in Austria, anchored apron organization of the SPÖ
- IMU - Innsbruck Medical Union , only running at the Medical University of Innsbruck .
- No Ma'am - fun group at the University of Linz
Amendment to the Student Union Act 2004
On December 10, 2004, with the votes of the ÖVP and FPÖ and in protest of the then ÖH federal representation, an initiative request to amend the Student Union Act (now: University Student Union Act) was granted. Among other things, this amendment provided for the abolition of the direct election of the faculty representatives and the federal representatives, as well as the distribution of funds in favor of the student representatives and the university representatives. This was justified by the fact that with the autonomy of the universities, the representations at university level would have more tasks and that a common interest of all students, as it was assumed at the time the ÖH was founded, was no longer so strong.
With the new election mode, critics feared that mandates would be redistributed in the next elections in May 2005 in favor of the action community and student council lists. This was one of the reasons why the novella was highly controversial. In fact, however, the VSStÖ and the FLÖ benefited from the new voting mode in the 2005 election. Only in the 2007 election do critics see that this redistribution is actually taking place. Another point of criticism arises from the fact that not every vote counts equally for the federal representation, and that multiple enrolled students can practically cast several votes for the federal representation.
Amendment to the Student Union Act 2014
Almost 10 years after the last amendment, an extensive amendment was passed on June 12, 2014. Central is the reintroduction of direct elections for the federal representation, which was abolished with the last amendment. Likewise, with the amendment, the ÖH is once again the legal representation of students at private universities and the representation structures are being adjusted by setting up representations at universities with more than 1000 students as a separate body. A cross-sectoral list election is now also made every two years. With the amendment, students from so-called third countries (non-EU / EEA) now also have the right to vote and the option of postal voting has been created.
ÖH elections since 2001
The results of the ÖH elections since 2001:
|list||Seats 2001||Seats 2003||Seats 2005||Seats 2007||Seats 2009||Seats 2011||Seats 2013||Seats 2015||Seats 2017||Seats 2019|
|Action Community (AG)||15th||14th||14th||20th||22nd||22nd||19th||16||15th||15th|
|Independent student council lists of Austria (FLÖ)||2||3||11||14th||16||15th||17th||7th||8th||5|
|Group of committed students (FEST) 3)||-||-||-||-||12||13||15th||2||nk||nk|
|Green & Alternative Students (GRAS)||12||14th||14th||15th||15th||14th||12||12||9||13|
|Association of Socialist Students in Austria (VSStÖ)||10||16||11||8th||12||12||8th||12||13|
|Young Liberal NEOS (JUNOS) 2)||2||1||1||1||0||3||3||6th||7th||6th|
|Communist Student Association (KSV) 1)||2||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Communist Student Association - Left List (KSV-LiLi)||nk||nk||nk||nk||1||1||1||1||1||1|
|Ring of Freedom Students (RFS)||1||1||1||1||1||1||2||1||1||1|
1) Split into two groups in 2007 2) Young Liberals Austria (JuLis ) until 2014, Liberal Student Forum (LSF) until 2009 3) Originally arose in 2009 as an association of FH mandataries who joined the ÖH- Federal representation were sent. Meanwhile, however, also universities and PHs.
The ÖH is a member of the European Students' Union and thus also represents Austrian students at European level. Since 2006 the ÖH has also been a member of Eurodoc (European Council of Doctoral Candidates and Junior Researchers) , the European association of doctoral students and young researchers.
- Association of Swiss Student Unions (VSS)
- Free association of student bodies (fzs, German umbrella organization)
- Christine Forster, The History of the Austrian Students' Union 1945–1955 . Vienna 1984 ISBN 3-85369-570-1
- ÖH contribution: Where does the money go? In: The press . May 12, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2017 .
- StGBl. No. 170/1945 : Ordinance of the State Office for Public Enlightenment, Instruction and Education of September 3, 1945
- Federal Law Gazette No. 174/1950 : Student Union Act of July 12, 1950
- Gerhard Wagner: From the Austrian Students 'Union to the Austrian Students' Union . Continuities and breaks. Vienna 2010, p. 13 ( PDF file [accessed on April 16, 2012] diploma thesis).
- 60 years of ÖH. (PDF) (No longer available online.) In: oeh-salzburg.at . P. 54 , archived from the original on October 3, 2015 ; Retrieved April 29, 2017 .
- Viktoria Spielmann is the new ÖH chairwoman. In: Salzburger Nachrichten . June 27, 2014, accessed April 29, 2017 .
- New ÖH tip wants to give the Minister of Science against. In: Wiener Zeitung . June 26, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2017 .
- Lucia Grabetz is the new ÖH chairwoman. In: ORF.at . June 24, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2016 .
- derStandard.at: Johanna Zechmeister elected as ÖH chairwoman . Article dated June 23, 2017, accessed June 23, 2017.
- HSG 2014 § 2. Accessed on January 3, 2016 .
- RIS - Entire Legal Provision for Students' Union Act 2014 - Federal law consolidated, version dated 03/01/2016. In: www.ris.bka.gv.at. Retrieved January 3, 2016 .
- HSG 2014 § 15 (2). Retrieved January 3, 2016 .
- HSG 2014 § 36 (2). Retrieved January 3, 2016 .
- HSG 2014 § 38 (2). Retrieved January 3, 2016 .
- Consumer price index - Statistics Austria. Retrieved July 20, 2017 .
- HSG 2014 § 38 (3). Retrieved July 20, 2017 .
- Insurance | Austrian student body. In: www.oeh.ac.at. Retrieved October 8, 2017 .
- Announcement of the student fee (ÖH fee) for the academic year 2018/19. (PDF) Retrieved October 7, 2018 .
- ÖH contribution | Austrian student body. In: www.oeh.ac.at. Retrieved July 20, 2017 .
- Statisitk Austria: website Statisitk Austria. Retrieved September 23, 2018 .
- HSG 2014 § 39 (3), (4), (5). Retrieved October 8, 2017 .
- Michael Hasenöhrl: Student elections in Austria . The Austrian Students' Union (ÖH) 1946–2001. Vienna 2002, p. 25–36 (seminar paper for “Seminar from Austrian Regime Doctrine: Empirical Election Research” with Peter Ulram and Rainer Alexandrowicz).
- ÖH elections 2013: The results. In: FM4.orf.at. Retrieved May 2, 2015 .
- Special report of the Court of Auditors - Bund 2000/2 series. (PDF) Financing of political parties and parliamentary clubs. In: rechnungshof.gv.at . Court of Auditors , April 2000, p. 15 , accessed on April 29, 2017 (paragraph 7.1.3). Menento: https://web.archive.org/web/20120426083642/http://www.rechnungshof.gv.at/fileadmin/downloads/Berichte/Berichte_bis_2006/Bund/Bund_2000_2/Bund_2000_2.pdf
- Special report of the Court of Auditors - Bund 2000/2 series. (PDF) Financing of political parties and parliamentary clubs. In: rechnungshof.gv.at . Court of Auditors , April 2000, p. 16 , accessed on April 29, 2017 (paragraph 7.1.4).
- Youth position paper , on neos.eu. Retrieved December 17, 2015
- Special report of the Court of Auditors - Bund 2000/2 series. (PDF) Financing of political parties and parliamentary clubs. In: rechnungshof.gv.at . Court of Auditors , April 2000, p. 15 , accessed on April 29, 2017 (paragraph 7.1.2).
- The organizational. (PDF): spoe.at . SPÖ , accessed on April 29, 2017 .
- Special report of the Court of Auditors - Bund 2000/2 series. (PDF) Financing of political parties and parliamentary clubs. In: rechnungshof.gv.at . Court of Auditors , April 2000, p. 14 , accessed on April 29, 2017 (paragraph 7.1.1).
- Frequentually Askes Questions IMU… your representation, IMU website, accessed March 21, 2017.
- ÖH election: AG would like to take over chairmanship as the parliamentary group with the strongest vote. Der Standard, May 17, 2013, accessed January 11, 2018 .
- Federal Law Gazette I No. 45/2014 (PDF; 479 kB)
- orf.at - National Council reintroduces direct elections to ÖH , accessed on July 11, 2014.
- Explanations. (PDF) Retrieved October 8, 2017 .
- Text comparison. (PDF) Retrieved October 8, 2017 .
- Federal Ministry of Science and Research: Information on the 2009 ÖH election. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on June 13, 2011 ; Retrieved May 3, 2017 .
- FLÖ nationwide second strongest force. In: fachschaftslisten.at . July 23, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2017 .
- ÖH elections 2011: The results. In: radio FM4 . May 26, 2011, accessed May 3, 2017 .
- Students' Union elections 2013. In: www.oeh.ac.at . Retrieved May 3, 2017 .
- Students' Union Election 2015 In: www.oeh.ac.at . Retrieved May 3, 2017 .
- Students' Union Election 2017. In: www.oeh.ac.at . Retrieved May 19, 2017 .
- fm4v2.ORF.at / ÖH election 2003 - results. Retrieved September 9, 2018 .
- fm4v2.ORF.at / ÖH-Wahl 2001. Accessed on September 9, 2018 .
- ÖH election 2019 results. Retrieved May 29, 2019 .
- Full Member Directory. In: www.esu-online.org . Retrieved May 3, 2017 .
- Austria ( Memento from March 6, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Austrian Students' Union: ÖH part of the European umbrella association for doctoral students . In: APA-OTS . April 7, 2006, accessed May 3, 2017 .