Alphonse Juin

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Alphonse Juin
Monument on Place de Maréchal Juin in Paris, 2009

Alphonse Juin (born December 16, 1888 in Bône , today Annaba , Algeria , † January 27, 1967 in Paris ) was the last Marshal of France appointed during his lifetime .


Juin graduated from St. Cyr Officers School in 1912 ; Charles de Gaulle also belonged to his class . At the beginning of the First World War in 1914 he served as a lieutenant in a regiment in Morocco . After fighting broke out, he was deployed on the Western Front and seriously wounded in 1915. His right arm was permanently paralyzed.

After the First World War, Juin successfully graduated from the military academy. In 1938 he was supposed to take over a brigade, but when the Second World War broke out he was given command of the 15th Division d'Infanterie Motorisée (15th DIM), a motorized infantry division. In Lille , the division was surrounded and Juin was captured, from which he in 1941 at the request of the Vichy government was released. After his release from captivity, he went to North Africa and took command of the Vichy troops . After the Allies landed in North Africa in 1942, he switched to the Free French troops.

He was then head of the Free French Expeditionary Corps in Italy, which was fighting alongside the Allies ( Corps expéditionnaire français en Italie ). Historians accuse him of allowing his troops in Italy after the victory at Monte Cassino to rob and rape for several days with impunity. The Free French Expeditionary Force is said to have made extensive use of this permit.

As General Resident in French Morocco in 1953 he banished the Sultan and later King Mohammed V. He was then from 1952 to 1956 Commander of NATO Forces in Central Europe (CENTAG) , during which time he was appointed Marshal of France in 1952. In 1962 he resigned in protest against De Gaulle's policy on Algeria . He died in Paris in 1967 and was buried in the Invalides .

In Paris a square ( Place du Maréchal-Juin ) is named after him. In Bordeaux there is the Cours du Maréchal Juin .


  • Alphonse Juin: Les mémoires du maréchal Juin. In: Le Figaro . 1949, p. 365.
  • José Aboulker: Nous qui avons arrêté le général Juin. In: La Nef. No. 27, 1959, pp. 14-17.
  • Henri Giraud : Un seul but la victoire. Alger 1942-1944. Julliard, Paris 1949.
  • Yves Maxime Danan: La vie politique à Alger de 1940 à 1944 (= Bibliothèque de droit public. 53, ISSN  0520-0288 ). Librairie générale de droit et de jurisprudence, Paris 1963, (also: Paris, Thèse de doctorat, 1999).
  • Alphonse P. Juin , in: Internationales Biographisches Archiv 12/1967 of March 13, 1967, in the Munzinger Archive ( beginning of article freely available)
  • Christine Levisse-Touzé: L'Afrique du Nord dans la guerre. 1939-1945. Albin Michel, Paris 1998, ISBN 2-226-10069-5 .
  • Jacques Cantier: L'Algérie sous le régime de Vichy. Toulouse II 1999, (Toulouse II, Thèse de doctorat, 1999).
  • José Aboulker, Christine Levisse-Touzé: November 8, 1942: les armées américaine et anglaise prennent Alger en quinze heures. In: Espoir. No. 133, 2002, ISSN  0223-5994 , pp. 11-65.

Individual evidence

  1. [1]
  2. [] Clayton, Anthony (1992). Three Marshals of France. Brassey's. ISBN 0-08-040707-2 . P. 87

Web links

predecessor Office successor
--- Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Central Europe
Jean-Étienne Valluy