Apple blubber

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Apple blubber
Apple blubber (russula paludosa)

Apple blubber ( russula paludosa )

Class : Agaricomycetes
Subclass : insecure position (incertae sedis)
Order : Russulales (Russulales)
Family : Deaf relatives (Russulaceae)
Genre : Russulas ( Russula )
Type : Apple blubber
Scientific name
Russula paludosa

The apple deafness ( Russula paludosa ) is a species of fungus from the family of deaf relatives (Russulaceae). The mild-tasting mushroom is one of the largest species of deaf in Europe and is a good edible mushroom. Young specimens look like red-cheeked apples with their vivid red and yellow-red coloring. Its lamellae are white to creamy yellow in color, the spore powder is pale. The mycorrhizal fungus grows in humid coniferous forests between July and October.


Macroscopic features

The hat is 5–15, rarely up to 20 cm wide and is hemispherical when young, later flatly arched to flattened and even with age not or only slightly depressed in the middle. The hat skin is shiny even when dry and slightly smeary when wet. The surface is slightly bumpy and appears to be hammered. The hat is blood or carmine red and often darker in the middle than on the edge. However, over time the colors can fade to a pale orange. The edge of the hat is smooth and sharp and only slightly grooved on old fruiting bodies. Half of the skin can be peeled off.

The lamellae are white in young mushrooms, pale cream-colored to yellowish with age. They are bulging, have many intermediate lamellae and are thin. The blade edges are smooth and often reddened towards the edge. The spore powder is light loosener ( IIIb after Romagnesi )

The cylindrical to slightly clubbed, white stalk is 4–10 cm long and 1.5–2.5 (3) cm wide. It is often tinged with reddish and becomes pithy and hollow with age. Pressure points can be yellowish and, with age, the base of the stem can be gray.

The flesh is white, red and odorless under the cap skin. When it dries, it smells like parched apple wedges. The taste is mild, but sometimes slightly bitter to astringent. The meat turns gray-pink with FeSO 4 and olive-green with guaiac.

Microscopic features

The spores are round to elliptical and 7.5–10.3 µm long and 6.3–8.2 µm wide. The Q value (spore length / spore width) is 1.1–1.3. The rounded, partially elongated warts are up to 1 µm high and in places connected by fine lines like a network. The 40–50 µm long and 10–13 µm wide basidia are club-shaped and usually carry four, more rarely one or two sterigms .

The 40–65 µm long and 6–10 µm wide cheilocystids are few in number and can be shaped very differently. They can be cylindrical, spindle-shaped, awl-shaped or partially appendiculated at the tip , that is, they have a more or less pronounced process. The pleurocystids are similar. They are 55–120 µm long and 7–13 µm wide and quite numerous. All cystides do not stain with sulfobenzaldehyde or only stain slightly gray-black.

The cap skin consists of cylindrical, mostly simply septate and partially branched hair-like hyphal end cells (hairs) that are 2.5–4 µm wide and the hyphal walls are weakly gelatinized. Between the hyphae there are weakly clubbed, 3–7 µm wide, mostly unseptated Pileocystiden interspersed, which turn a pale gray-black in sulfobenzaldehyde.

Species delimitation

It is not uncommon for the orange-red gray-stalked deafbling to be found in the same location . Particularly red-colored specimens can be confused with this species. The flesh and stem of older fruiting bodies gray or blacken, so that the two types can be easily distinguished. In addition, the gray-stalked blubber lacks the red tint of the stalk and the spores are larger and more ornamented. Red spider pavers can also grow in the same location, but they can be easily differentiated by a taste test.


The apple pigeon, like all pigeons, is a mycorrhizal fungus that can enter into a symbiosis with various conifers. Its most important mycorrhizal partner is the spruce , followed by various types of pine , it is also found less often in firs. The Täubling often occurs in moist and acidic spruce, fir and spruce forests, in mossy spruce and lichen-rich pine forests, in pine and spruce bog forests, peat moss lawns and only very rarely in beech forests. He likes fresh to wet, sometimes boggy and extremely base and nutrient poor soils. At pH values ​​above 4.5 it can already be absent.

The mostly sociable fruiting bodies often appear between July and October between peat moss and blueberry bushes.


European countries with evidence of finding of the apple pigeon.
  • Countries with found reports
  • Countries without evidence
  • no data
  • non-European countries
  • The distribution area of ​​the apple pavilion is in the temperate latitudes of the northern hemisphere, in northern Asia (Caucasus, Kamchatka ), North America (USA) and Europe. In the south it occurs from Corsica to Romania, in the west from France to the Hebrides and in the east to Belarus. In the north it is widespread throughout Fennoscandinavia as far as Lapland.

    The species is known in Germany from all federal states, but spreads very differently depending on soil conditions and climate. It is widespread in Austria, only in Vienna and Burgenland the Täubling is largely absent. It is found particularly frequently in the low mountain ranges, on the edge of the Alps and in the mountains between 500 m and 1500 m above sea level, limestone areas are avoided. The temperature optimum (annual average temperature) of the mushroom is between 5 and 7 ° C. The Täubling is quite common in Switzerland, but not often. The Täubling occurs here in the hilly and especially in the mountainous country. The highest location was 2090 m high.


    The German mycologist and botanist Max Britzelmayr scientifically described the apple pigeon for the first time in 1891 and gave it its current scientific name. The Latin adjective paludosus means swampy and refers to the location where the apple blubber prefers to grow. R. Singer saw only a variety of the Brown Leather-Täubling in the Täubling and in 1923 downgraded the taxon to Russula integra var. Paludosa . The taxon was described and named after its first description by other authors. Therefore there are numerous, heterotypical synonyms: 1. Russula elatior 1901 by MA Lindblad , 2. Russula fragaria (1919) by K. Kudrnas, 3. Russula integra var. Rubrotincta by the American mycologist CH Peck , who in the Täubling like Singer only saw a variety of the brown leather blubber and 4. Russula olgae 1920 by the Czech botanist and Russula expert J. Velenovský .

    Position within the genus

    The apple pigeon is the type species of the subsection Paludosinae within the section Viridantes . The representatives have relatively large, robust fruit bodies and taste mild. The hat is usually reddish, orange to yellowish in color. The spore powder is ocher in color. The flesh is invariable, or turns slightly brown or gray.


    The apple pavilion is a popular edible mushroom, but it can easily be confused with poisonous pavement puffins, so the determination should be verified by a taste test. A mix-up with the also similar, edible orange-red gray-stalked deafblings remains without consequences.


    • Hans E. Laux: The cosmos mushroom atlas. 2nd edition, Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co KG, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 978-3-440-10622-8 .
    • Russula paludosa. Partial Russula Database. In: CBS Fungual Biodiversity Center, accessed August 29, 2011 .
    • Henri Romagnesi: Les Russules d'Europe et d''Afrique du Nord . essai sur la valeur taxinomique et specifique des caractères morphologiques et microchimiques des spores et des revêtements. Bordas, Paris 1967, p. 802 f . (French).

    Individual evidence

    1. ^ Synonyms of Russula paludosa. In: Index Fungorum, accessed August 29, 2011 .
    2. a b c d Josef Breitenbach, Fred Kränzlin (Ed.): Pilze der Schweiz. Contribution to knowledge of the fungal flora in Switzerland. Volume 6: Russulaceae. Milklings, deafblings. Mykologia, Luzern 2005, ISBN 3-85604-060-9 , p. 216.
    3. J. Schäffer: Russula paludosa . Russula monograph. In: Annales Mycologici . tape 31 , 1933, pp. 385 ( [accessed August 29, 2011]).
    4. a b German Josef Krieglsteiner (ed.), Andreas Gminder , Wulfard Winterhoff: Die Großpilze Baden-Württemberg . Volume 2: Stand mushrooms: inguinal, club, coral and stubble mushrooms, belly mushrooms, boletus and deaf mushrooms. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-8001-3531-0 , p. 495.
    5. ^ Alfred Einhellinger: The genus Russula in Bavaria . In: Bibliotheca Mycologica . 3. Edition. tape 112 . Berlin / Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 978-3-443-59056-7 , pp. 137 .
    6. Basidiomycota Checklist-Online - Russula paludosa. In: Retrieved September 28, 2012 .
    7. Cvetomir M. Denchev & Boris Assyov: Checklist of the larger basidiomycetes in Bulgaria . In: Mycotaxon . tape 111 , 2010, ISSN  0093-4666 , p. 279–282 ( [PDF; 578 kB ; accessed on August 31, 2011]).
    8. Z. Tkalcec, A. Mešic: Preliminary checklist of Agaricales from Croatia V: Families Crepidotaceae, Russulaceae and Strophariaceae . In: Mycotaxon . tape 88 , 2003, ISSN  0093-4666 , p. 293 ( [accessed August 31, 2011]).
    9. ^ Estonian eBiodiversity Species description Russula paludosa. In: Archived from the original on December 18, 2015 ; accessed on June 13, 2012 .
    10. Worldwide distribution of Russula paludosa. (No longer available online.) In: Archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; Retrieved August 21, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
    11. Gordana Kasom, Mitko Karadelev: Survey of the family Russulaceae (Agaricomycetes, Fungi) in Montenegro . In: Warsaw Versita (ed.): Acta Botanica Croatica . tape 71 , no. 2 , 2012, ISSN  0365-0588 , p. 1–14 ( [PDF; accessed September 28, 2012]). ( Memento of the original from April 27, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
    12. Russula paludosa in the PilzOek database. In: Retrieved August 21, 2011 .
    13. ^ TV Andrianova et al .: Russula paludosa. Fungi of Ukraine. (No longer available online.) In: 2006, archived from the original on November 27, 2015 ; accessed on May 3, 2012 .
    14. ^ NMV Verspreidingsatlas online: Russula paludosa. In: Retrieved September 28, 2012 .
    15. ^ Database of mushrooms in Austria. In: Austrian Mycological Society, accessed on July 21, 2015 .
    16. Distribution atlas of mushrooms in Switzerland. (No longer available online.) In: Federal Research Institute for Forests, Snow and Landscape WSL, archived from the original on October 15, 2012 ; accessed on July 21, 2015 .
    17. ^ Karl Ernst Georges: Comprehensive Latin-German concise dictionary . tape 2 . Hanover 1913, Sp. 1452 ( ).

    Web links

    Commons : Apple puff ( Russula paludosa )  - Collection of images, videos and audio files