|Newman , 1834|
The fruit or bored flies (Tephritidae, earlier also Trypetidae) are a family of flies (Brachycera). Worldwide there are around 4700 species in almost 500 genera. About 264 species in 68 genera live in Europe . In the Nearctic there are more than 360 species in 62 genera. The Tephritidae should not be confused with the fruit flies (Drosophilidae), which are also referred to as “fruit flies” in German.
They are small to medium-sized flies with conspicuously drawn wings. In addition to the compound eyes , the animals also have point eyes ( Ocelli ). Their antennae are three-segmented, their mouthparts are well developed. The females have a fold-out laying tube ( ovipositor ).
Way of life
The adults usually only have a very short lifespan of several days.
The maggot-shaped larvae of the animals live phytophagus almost exclusively inside plants and are found in almost all parts of the plants. Some species also form plant galls . There are also types such as B. Euphranta toxoneura , which live parasitically in the galls of other insects. The females pierce their eggs directly into the plants and fruits with a laying tube. Drill flies of the genus Bactrocera can cause crop failures of up to 100% in olive plantations .
There are numerous species that can cause significant damage in agriculture and fruit growing . In cherry plantations z. B. the trees with nets are protected against the cherry fruit fly ( Rhagoletis cerasi ), whose larvae develop in the cherries.
The following figures are only approximate due to new additions and regroupings:
- Genus Bactrocera
- Olive fruit fly ( B. oleae )
- Genus Ceratitis
- Mediterranean fruit fly ( C. capitata )
- Subfamily Phytalmiinae (95 genera, 331 species)
- Subfamily Tachiniscinae (8 genera, 18 species)
- Subfamily Tephritinae (211 genera, 1859 species)
- Genus Chaetorellia
- Genus Eurosta
- Goldenrod gall fly ( E. solidaginis )
- Genus Terellia (aka Orellia )
- Genus tephritis
- Genus Trupanea
- Genus Urophora
- Thistle borer fly ( U. cardui )
- Genus Xyphosia
- Subfamily Trypetinae (118 genera, 1012 species)
- Genus Anomoia
- Hawthorn bore fly ( A. purmunda )
- Genus Euleia (aka Cryptaciura )
- Genus Euphranta
- Genus Oxyna
- Genus Plioreocepta
- Asparagus fly ( P. poeciloptera )
- Genus Rhagoletis
- without assigned subfamily ( incertae sedis , 3 genera, 32 species)
- Family Tephritidae - Fruit Flies . bugguide.net. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- Tephritidae in Fauna Europaea. Retrieved August 20, 2019
- Gall fly outmaneuvers host plans in game of "Spy vs. Spy" , on: EurekAlert! from July 9, 2020
- Eric C. Yip, Consuelo M. De Moraes, John F. Tooker, Mark C. Mescher: Sensory co ‐ evolution: The sex attractant of a gall ‐ making fly primes plant defenses, but female flies recognize resulting changes in host ‐ plant quality , in: Journal of Ecology, British Ecological Society, June 15, 2020, doi: 10.1111 / 1365-2745.13447
- Bugguide.net. Species Eurosta solidaginis - Goldenrod Gall Fly
- Euphranta flavorufa Hering, 1936 , based on: Insects catalog Insecta.pro
- K. J. David, Shakti Kumar Singh: Two new species of Euphranta Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae: Trypetiane) and an updated key for the species from India , in: Zootaxa 3914 (1), pp. 64–70, January 23 2015, ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition), ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition), doi: 10.11646 / zootaxa.3914.1.4
- British Insects: the Families of Diptera
- Fam.Tephritidae: fruit or bored flies ( Memento from July 4th, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- The Diptera Site: Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Classification and Diversity Table ( Memento from July 30, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Tephritidae at www.biolib.cz