Deck (shipbuilding)

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Section through the decks of the passenger liner Titanic (1912)

Decks ( ship deck ) are levels of ships .

to form

In the past and still today on smaller ships, the term refers to the horizontal "covering" of a ship's hull , the upper deck or main deck. Intermediate and engine decks are below, boat, promenade and superstructure decks above the main deck.

The roof of superstructures is called a deck if it is accessible, for example the cabin deck .

A special feature is the flight deck of an aircraft carrier .

In merchant shipping today it is mandatory to number the decks with letters or numbers.

Definitions of Decks

German English definition
Observation deck Observation deck The deck above the bridge deck, this is where the magnetic compass, the radar and other antenna systems or receiving and transmitting devices and the black box are usually installed .
Bridge deck Bridge deck The bridge deck is divided into the port and Steuerbordnock and the "control block" or bridge . The bridge watch or the driving watch is carried out on the bridge deck . All navigation devices and the controls are housed in the navigating bridge. The two nocks are each equipped with a subsidiary compass and an external control stand, are partly covered and thus part of the navigating bridge.
Freeboard deck Freeboard deck Continuously closed deck determined by the classification society for dimensioning the freeboard. Usually the top continuous deck (main deck); with simple ship constructions also weather deck.
Main deck Main deck Highest full deck on the hull of the ship. The superstructures are located above the main deck.
Upper deck Upper deck For ships with superstructures, the highest continuous deck from the stern to the foredeck.
Forecastle deck Fore castle deck Deck of a superstructure above the main deck on the foredeck.
Aft deck Quarter deck Upper deck higher aft .
Welldeck Well deck Uncovered area of ​​the main deck between the bow and the bridge deck.
Orlop deck Orlop deck Bottom of at least three or four decks (different information in the literature). Originally it was possible to walk from one side to the other ( Dutch : o (ve) rlopen).
Poop deck Poop deck Deck of a superstructure above the main deck at the stern.
Promenade deck Promenade deck Higher deck for promenading on passenger ships .
Savings card Spar deck Lightly built upper deck . Due to the light superstructure, only found on passenger or cargo ships .
Schanz The aft deck on warships (on sailing ships with cabin, steering position and mizzen mast).
Bulwark The longships of the Vikings had a bulwark at the front, on which the best fighters stood.
Shadow deck Shade deck Open, lightly built, continuous upper deck . Due to the light superstructure, only found on passenger or cargo ships .
Bulkhead deck The uppermost deck of a ship that runs the entire length, up to which the watertight bulkheads reach. With full deck ships, main deck and freeboard deck (survey deck) at the same time. If there is another continuous deck above the freeboard deck (ship type protective deck), this is considered the main deck and the bulkhead deck is one deck level below.
Protective deck Shelter deck In terms of ship surveying, an open, lighter upper deck . Due to the light superstructure, only found on passenger or cargo ships .
Weather deck Weather deck All decks, with the exception of the superstructure decks, which are not covered or built up and are exposed to the weather. Mostly the main deck.
Between deck Tween deck Non-continuous deck that lies between other decks, for example an intermediate deck in the engine room or cargo hold.
Campanjedeck Companion An upper deck , which also represented the roof of the captain's hut on larger (historical) sailing ships.


Location of different decks (selection)

Decks on barges (cargo ships)

The decks on inland vessels are generally made of steel .

  • Normally they are cargo ships with only one continuous deck, interrupted by the superstructures of the wheelhouse, the hold and the forward sailor's apartment. A letter designation such as B. for a seagoing ship is not applicable here. This means that the deck area that can be walked on is also relatively small. It is reduced all around to the narrow area of ​​the gangway. Some special ships such as B. Chemical tankers do not have such a gangway. They have a raised side wall, which at the upper end (above the waterline plus 2 meters) directly represents the loading deck, i.e. the closed loading space.
  • An exception is the barge as a car transporter, this vehicle has up to 3 loading decks on top of each other.
  • Another exception are the passenger ships in the inland area. Again, one speaks of multiple decks.

Wooden decks

Deck scrubbing on the Gorch Fock (1968)

In earlier times, ships and their decks were made of wood , but wood-planked upper decks (wood planking on steel decks) were common on warships well after World War II . The top decks of sailing ships are best cleaned with sand , water, and pumice stones . In addition to the high slip resistance when wet, the representative appearance is now a good reason to accept the higher maintenance costs. In traditional shipbuilding, the side of the deck planking is called Leibholz.

Even in modern shipbuilding made of steel or GRP , the upper deck of many passenger and leisure ships is planked with teak .

Individual ships of the German Navy also have wooden planking in certain areas.

Cannon decks

A ship can have one or more cannon decks.

From the 15th and 16th centuries , cannons increasingly determined the conduct of war at sea ( naval combat , naval warfare ). In the Mediterranean, which arose from the galleys schooner . The Portuguese and Spaniards further developed the ship type of the cog and the kraweel into caravels and carracks . The Spanish Armada became the largest fleet in the world at the time. The galleon was developed; she was used both as a merchant and (in a leaner form) as a warship. An example of this is Sir Francis Drake's Golden Hinde .

The ship of the line with a slimmer hull than the merchant ships dominated the seas from the 17th century . The model for the first ships of the line was the Henri Grâce à Dieu , which in 1547 had 21 cannons with a displacement of 1000 tons. The ship's guns , which were initially set up on the upper deck and shot bullets made of stone or iron, were housed in special weapon decks ( battery deck ) behind gun ports .

Cross-sectional model of the Vasa

As a result, the center of gravity was shifted downwards and more cannons could be transported without increasing the risk of capsizing . The preferred fighting technique now became the broadside , in which one side was shot from all tubes.

How important a deep focus is was shown e.g. B. on the maiden voyage of the Vasa . It sank on August 10, 1628 after a few hundred meters due to too many heavy artillery pieces that were not planned in the design.

The Prince Royal , built in 1610, was the first ship with three tiers of guns and for a long time the largest warship in the world. The Naseby (1655) , renamed Royal Charles in 1660 , became the prototype of the warship for the next 150 years. She had 1230 tons of water displacement, 80 cannons and a crew of 600 men with a length of 53 m and a width of 14 m. In addition to these large ships, the frigate with around 20-40 cannons soon appeared as a smaller, particularly fast sailing warship.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Lexicon of classic water sports . Retrieved July 13, 2019.