Green masked hummingbird
|Green masked hummingbird|
Green masked hummingbird
|( Temminck , 1824)|
The hyacinth visorbearer or sign Hummingbird ( Augastes scutatus ) is a species of bird in the family of hummingbirds (Trochilidae). This endemic species occurs only in the South American country of Brazil . The IUCN classifies the population as “ Near Threatened ”.
The male green-masked hummingbird reaches a body length of about 8.9 centimeters while the female is only about 8.3 centimeters tall. Both sexes weigh around 4.5 to 5 grams. The male's forehead and throat have a golden green sheen. The upper side, the wing coverts and the tail coverts are golden bronze green. The forehead border is black. He has a dark blue spot on his neck. The chest is adorned with a cream-colored chest band. The underside is dark blue. The blue-green under tail-coverts have white borders. The wings are blackish purple. Another feature is a small white spot behind the eye. The 21 millimeter straight pointed beak and the feet are black. The top and wings of the female are the same as those of the male. The forehead and throat are golden green, the throat has a dark brown border. The side spot on the neck is blue. The gray underside is pied blue and blue-green. The under tail-coverts and the breast band are gray-white. The tail is similar to that of the male but has gray tips on the lateral pairs of feathers. The wings are blackish purple.
distribution and habitat
The bird occurs in the high mountains of the Serra do Caraça , Serra do Santo and Serra do Cipó of Minas Gerais at altitudes between 900 and 2000 meters. The three subspecies inhabit separate biotopes at these altitudes. The area is characterized by bromeliads interspersed with Velloziaceae , cacti , Vochysiaceae , myrtle family , amaryllis family , milkweed family , soap tree family and belt flower family , which grow on more or less large rock formations. Below this vegetation, the area turns into tropical rainforest. In addition to the amethyst- eared hummingbird ( Colibri serrirostris ) and a subspecies of the gold-bellied emerald hummingbird ( Chlorostilbon lucidus pucherani ), it is the most common hummingbird species in this region.
The hummingbird is very faithful to its location, i.e. H. it can often be seen exactly on the same branches. He defends his place, especially in the morning hours against passing competitors who are looking for food. He sits on his branch at a height of about 3 meters and sings. It usually flies at heights between one and two, rarely higher than about eight meters above the ground. The female builds her nest on her own relatively freely at a height of about 60 centimeters. For the construction, she uses coarser parts of plants and fly seeds from sunflower plants , which are fastened with cactus floss and spider threads. All nests are yellowish-white in color and are built in thin forks of branches. If the hummingbird wants to clean itself, it dips its spread tail tips into the water and then shakes the water over its body.
So far, three subspecies are known, which mainly differ in their coloration and distribution area. These are:
- Augastes scutatus scutatus ( Temminck , 1824) - nominate form . Occurs in the cactus-guarded rock regions of Minas Gerais at altitudes between 900 and 2000 meters.
- Augastes scutatus ilseae Grantsau , 1967 Occurs in the bush forest regions around 900 meters of forests along the river. The male's top and tail are shiny blue-green with a slight copper tinge. The face shield shines green and is bordered deep black down to the cream-colored collar. The sides of the neck are dark purple, the chest and belly purple-blue. The undersides of the tail are blue-green. The whitish under-tail-coverts have blue-green inner spots. Wings in the same color as nominate shape. The top, wings and tail of the female are the same as those of the male. The face shield shines golden green, while the cheeks are gray-brown. The sides of the neck are blue, the chest band white. The underside is gray with only faint bluish and greenish tints. Tail tips contain little gray. The under tail coverts are dirty gray.
- Augastes scutatus soaresi Ruschi , 1963 present in the valley of the Rio Piracicaba near Santa Bárbara. Very similar to the nominate form, but has a blue band between the purple field on the sides of the neck to the tail. Overall slightly larger than the nominated form.
Etymology and history of research
Coenraad Jacob Temminck described the hummingbird under the name Trochilus scutatus . He gave Brazil as the place of discovery. Temminck was known to have one type copy in the Hof-Naturalien-Cabinet , collected by Johann Natterer , and one in the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle , collected by Augustin François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire . It was John Gould who classified him in his deliveries 1 of his hummingbird tables in 1849 in the new genus Augastes . This name is of Greek origin and is derived from »augastēs, augē αυγαστης, αυγη « for »light transmitter, radiant , sunlight«. The specific epithet "scutatus" comes from the Latin legionnaires' language and means provided with a long shield , which refers to the typical face shield of the hummingbird. This in turn is derived from "scutum" for "shield, long shield". Rolf Grantsau dedicated »Ilseae« to his wife Ilse. Augusto Ruschi gave »Soaresi« in honor of his friend Júlio Soares.
- Rolf Grantsau : The hummingbirds of Brazil . Expressão e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro 1988, ISBN 978-85-208-0101-7 .
- Rolf Grantsau: Sôbre o gênero Augastes, com a descrição de uma subespécie nova (Aves, Trochilidae) . In: Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia de São Paulo . tape 21 , no. 3 , 1967, p. 21-31 .
- Augusto Ruschi: A atual distribuição geográfica das espécies e subespécies do gênero Augastes com a descrição de uma nova sub-espécie: Augaste scutatus soaresi Ruschi ea chave artificial e analítica para o reconhecimento das mesas . In: Boletim Museu Biol. Prof. "Mello Leitão" Santa Teresa (= Divulgação ). No. 4 , 1963, pp. 1–4 ( boletim.sambio.org.br [PDF; 119 kB ]).
- James A. Jobling: Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names . Christopher Helm, London 2010, ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4 .
- Coenraad Jacob Temminck: Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d'oiseaux: pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon (plate 299, figure 3 & text) . tape 4 , delivery 50. Legras Imbert et Comp., Strasbourg 1824 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Edward Clive Dickinson: Systematic notes on Asian birds. 9. The "Nouveau recueil de planches coloriees" of Temminck & Laugier (1820-1839) . In: Zoological negotiations uitgegeven door het Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie te Leiden . No. 335 , 2001, p. 7–56 ( repository.naturalis.nl [PDF; 2.4 MB ]).
- John Gould: A monograph of the Trochilidæ, or family of humming-birds . tape 4 , supply 1. Taylor and Francis, London 1849 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Frederick Herschel Waterhouse: The dates of publication of some of the zoological works of the late John Gould, FRS RH Porter, London 1885 ( biodiversitylibrary.org ).
- Augastes scutatus inthe IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014.1. Listed by: BirdLife International, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- BirdLife International: Species Factsheet - Hyacinth Visorbearer ( Augastes scutatus ) . Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- Videos, photos and sound recordings of Hyacinth Visorbearer (Augastes scutatus) in the Internet Bird Collection
- Green Masked Hummingbird ( Augastes scutatus ) at Avibase; Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- Augastes scutatus in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- xeno-canto: Sound recordings - Hyacinth Visorbearer ( Augastes scutatus )
- The natural history of humming-birds by William Jardine Natterer's Hummingbird ( Trochilus scutatus ) Dated 1833 (Engl.) Painted picture by William Home Lizars (1788–1859) with a description by Johann Natterer . Vogel was sent from Brazil by Natterer and Augustin François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire .
- O banho de Augastes scutatus (Temminck, 1824) em duas localidades de campos rupestres em Minas Gerais O banho de Augastes scutatus (Temminck, 1824) em duas localidades de campos rupestres em Minas Gerais (Engl & Port .; PDF; 243 kB)
- IOC World Bird List Hummingbirds
- Coenraad Jacob Temminck, p. 98
- Rolf Grantsau (1967), p. 26
- Augusto Ruschi, p. 1
- Edward Clive Dickinson worked out the exact publication dates of Temminck's work in his article. Plate 299 belonged to delivery 50 from 1824.
- John Gould (1849), plate 221, volume 4. This corresponds to delivery 1 from 1849.
- Frederick Herschel Waterhouse, p. 46 Here the year of publication, delivery with the plate in A monograph of the Trochilidæ is shown.
- James A. Jobling, p. 60
- James A. Jobling, p. 352
- Rolf Grantsau (1967), p. 27
- Augusto Ruschi, p. 2