Large-flowered vetch ( Vicia grandiflora )
The large-flowered vetch ( Vicia grandiflora ) is a species of the genus Vicia in the subfamily of the pea-buds (Faboideae).
Appearance and leaf
The large-flowered vetch is an annual or hibernating annual herbaceous plant . The fluffy hairy to almost bald and fresh green stem is 30 to 60 centimeters long, ascending, branched from the base and with a round stem .
The pinnate leaves have three to seven pairs of thin, very differently shaped leaflets with weak, mostly knotty tendrils. The leaflets of the lower leaves are obovate to inverted heart-shaped, usually less than 1 cm long, often deeply edged and equipped with a few lateral nerves. The upper leaves are obovate to linear, about 1 to 2 centimeters long and 2 to 8 millimeters wide, rounded, trimmed or edged and briefly pointed with up to twelve pairs of straight side nerves. The stipules are relatively small, the upper ones egg-shaped, with entire margins, the lower ones semi-spear-shaped, with small nectaries underneath and somewhat serrated.
The flowering time is in the months of May and June. The flowers stand protruding on 2 to 8 millimeter long stems, usually in twos, in the leaf axils. The hermaphrodite flowers are more or less 2.5 to 3 centimeters long and zygomorphic and five-fold with a double flower envelope . The five sepals have grown together to form an 8 to 10 millimeter long calyx tube with a bulging base and the lanceolate, awl-shaped, straight calyx teeth are significantly shorter than the calyx tube. The crown has the typical shape of the butterfly flower . The five petals are pale yellow, with the flag, often also the tip of the boat, more or less purple to greenish. The flag plate is up to about 2 inches long and almost as wide, shallow and bare. The wings are only about twice as long as the chalice and longer than the shuttle.
Fruit and seeds
The initially short-haired, when ripe, bald and black legume is linear and flat with a length of 3.5 to 5 centimeters and a width of 6 to 8 millimeters.
With a diameter of 3 to 3.5 millimeters, the seeds are flattened, spherical and brown with washed-out, black spots.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 14.
The large-flowered vetch is widespread from southeast Europe to Italy , southern Austria , east to Ukraine , Asia Minor , the Caucasus and Iran . Vicia grandiflora is an east-sub-Mediterranean floral element .
In Central Europe , Vicia grandiflora has only been introduced and is inconsistently wild.
In Germany, for example, it occurs in the wine-growing areas between the Middle Rhine , Moselle Main and the Neckar estuary, as well as on the lower reaches of the Regen and in the Hallertau . In Germany, the large-flowered vetch occurs only in advent and is naturalized in many places. In Bavaria, the large-flowered vetch is only widespread in the Main and Danube areas, otherwise mostly absent. The large-flowered vetch can be found more often in the eastern part of Germany in particular. Between 1994 and 1997 she was u. a. proven on a former military training area in the Kleckewitzer Heide (also Alt-Jeßnitz-Raguhn ).
As a volatile adventitious plant, Vicia grandiflora is dependent on new seedings from introduced diaspores , so that the occurrence is more or less random. However, it seems to be steadily "gaining a foothold" in the large river valleys such as the Main and Danube.
The large-flowered vetch grows in meadows , grain fields , hedges and in ruderal areas . It colonizes dry bushes and the edges of dry forests in Central Europe in areas with a warm summer climate, but it also goes to wasteland and railway gravel. It thrives in Southeastern Europe in companies of the Orno-Ostryon association. The large-flowered vetch thrives best in nutrient-rich , loamy soils .
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- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora . With the collaboration of Theo Müller. 6th, revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 1990, ISBN 3-8001-3454-3 .
- Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . 8th edition. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 . Page 613.
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- On the flora of Bitterfeld and the surrounding area. Archived from the original on October 1, 2016 ; accessed on October 1, 2016 .
- Large-flowered vetch. In: FloraWeb.de.
- Large-flowered vetch . In: BiolFlor, the database of biological-ecological characteristics of the flora of Germany.
- Profile and distribution map for Bavaria . In: Botanical Information Hub of Bavaria .
- Vicia grandiflora Scop. In: Info Flora , the national data and information center for Swiss flora . Retrieved November 22, 2015.
- Thomas Meyer: Data sheet with identification key and photos at Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland (old name of the website: Flowers in Swabia )