Large-flowered vetch

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Large-flowered vetch
Large-flowered vetch (Vicia grandiflora)

Large-flowered vetch ( Vicia grandiflora )

Order : Fabales (Fabales)
Family : Legumes (Fabaceae)
Subfamily : Butterflies (Faboideae)
Tribe : Fabeae
Genre : Sweet peas ( Vicia )
Type : Large-flowered vetch
Scientific name
Vicia grandiflora

The large-flowered vetch ( Vicia grandiflora ) is a species of the genus Vicia in the subfamily of the pea-buds (Faboideae).


Edged stems in cross section
Inflorescence with zygomorphic flowers in detail
Calyxes with straight teeth, almost equally long among each other. The stipules show a nectarium (bottom right in the picture).
Open flower, visible is the stamen tube cut at an angle at the front.

Appearance and leaf

The large-flowered vetch is an annual or hibernating annual herbaceous plant . The fluffy hairy to almost bald and fresh green stem is 30 to 60 centimeters long, ascending, branched from the base and with a round stem .

The pinnate leaves have three to seven pairs of thin, very differently shaped leaflets with weak, mostly knotty tendrils. The leaflets of the lower leaves are obovate to inverted heart-shaped, usually less than 1 cm long, often deeply edged and equipped with a few lateral nerves. The upper leaves are obovate to linear, about 1 to 2 centimeters long and 2 to 8 millimeters wide, rounded, trimmed or edged and briefly pointed with up to twelve pairs of straight side nerves. The stipules are relatively small, the upper ones egg-shaped, with entire margins, the lower ones semi-spear-shaped, with small nectaries underneath and somewhat serrated.


The flowering time is in the months of May and June. The flowers stand protruding on 2 to 8 millimeter long stems, usually in twos, in the leaf axils. The hermaphrodite flowers are more or less 2.5 to 3 centimeters long and zygomorphic and five-fold with a double flower envelope . The five sepals have grown together to form an 8 to 10 millimeter long calyx tube with a bulging base and the lanceolate, awl-shaped, straight calyx teeth are significantly shorter than the calyx tube. The crown has the typical shape of the butterfly flower . The five petals are pale yellow, with the flag, often also the tip of the boat, more or less purple to greenish. The flag plate is up to about 2 inches long and almost as wide, shallow and bare. The wings are only about twice as long as the chalice and longer than the shuttle.

Fruit and seeds

The initially short-haired, when ripe, bald and black legume is linear and flat with a length of 3.5 to 5 centimeters and a width of 6 to 8 millimeters.

With a diameter of 3 to 3.5 millimeters, the seeds are flattened, spherical and brown with washed-out, black spots.

Chromosome number

The number of chromosomes is 2n = 14.


The large-flowered vetch is widespread from southeast Europe to Italy , southern Austria , east to Ukraine , Asia Minor , the Caucasus and Iran . Vicia grandiflora is an east-sub-Mediterranean floral element .

In Central Europe , Vicia grandiflora has only been introduced and is inconsistently wild.

In Germany, for example, it occurs in the wine-growing areas between the Middle Rhine , Moselle Main and the Neckar estuary, as well as on the lower reaches of the Regen and in the Hallertau . In Germany, the large-flowered vetch occurs only in advent and is naturalized in many places. In Bavaria, the large-flowered vetch is only widespread in the Main and Danube areas, otherwise mostly absent. The large-flowered vetch can be found more often in the eastern part of Germany in particular. Between 1994 and 1997 she was u. a. proven on a former military training area in the Kleckewitzer Heide (also Alt-Jeßnitz-Raguhn ).

It rarely occurs in Lower Austria and at the foot of the Alps . In Austria the large-flowered vetch is more common only in the eastern part; otherwise it is rare.

As a volatile adventitious plant, Vicia grandiflora is dependent on new seedings from introduced diaspores , so that the occurrence is more or less random. However, it seems to be steadily "gaining a foothold" in the large river valleys such as the Main and Danube.

The large-flowered vetch grows in meadows , grain fields , hedges and in ruderal areas . It colonizes dry bushes and the edges of dry forests in Central Europe in areas with a warm summer climate, but it also goes to wasteland and railway gravel. It thrives in Southeastern Europe in companies of the Orno-Ostryon association. The large-flowered vetch thrives best in nutrient-rich , loamy soils .


  • Gustav Hegi, H. Gams, H. Marzell: Illustrated flora of Central Europe. Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta . 2nd Edition. Volume IV. Part 3: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones 2 (5) (Leguminosae - Tropaeolaceae) . Carl Hanser and Paul Parey, Munich and Berlin / Hamburg 1964, ISBN 3-489-70020-1 (unchanged reprint from 1923-1924 with addendum).
  • Konrad von Weihe (ed.): Illustrated flora. Germany and neighboring areas. Vascular cryptogams and flowering plants . Founded by August Garcke. 23rd edition. Paul Parey, Berlin / Hamburg 1972, ISBN 3-489-68034-0 .
  • Oskar Sebald, Siegmund Seybold, Georg Philippi (Hrsg.): The fern and flowering plants of Baden-Württemberg . 2nd expanded edition. tape 2 : Special part (Spermatophyta, subclass Dilleniidae): Hypericaceae to Primulaceae . Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 1993, ISBN 3-8001-3323-7 .
  • Wolfgang Adler, Karl Oswald, Raimund Fischer: Excursion flora of Austria . Ed .: Manfred A. Fischer. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart / Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-8001-3461-6 .
  • Christian Heitz: School and excursion flora for Switzerland. Taking into account the border areas. Identification book for wild growing vascular plants . Founded by August Binz. 18th completely revised and expanded edition. Schwabe & Co., Basel 1986, ISBN 3-7965-0832-4 .
  • Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora . With the collaboration of Theo Müller. 6th, revised and expanded edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 1990, ISBN 3-8001-3454-3 .

Individual evidence

  1. a b Erich Oberdorfer : Plant-sociological excursion flora for Germany and neighboring areas . 8th edition. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3131-5 . Page 613.
  2. a b c d Dietmar Aichele, Heinz-Werner Schwegler: The flowering plants of Central Europe . 2nd Edition. tape 2 : Yew family to butterfly family . Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-440-08048-X .
  3. On the flora of Bitterfeld and the surrounding area. Archived from the original on October 1, 2016 ; accessed on October 1, 2016 .

Web links

Commons : Large-flowered vetch ( Vicia grandiflora )  - album with pictures, videos and audio files