Athletes play a home game when they compete at home - or in international competitions in their home country. In this case, the majority of the audience consists of fans of the individual athletes or teams concerned. The home team can often use this support for their own sporting success. In team sports such as football, the referee is influenced by the fans in favor of the home team.
In addition, as the British evolutionary psychologist Nick Neave has shown, the concentration of the male sex hormone testosterone in the blood of players increases significantly before home games , and significantly more than at away games. Testosterone is responsible for increased territorial behavior and, among other things, is intended to increase the speed of reaction and spatial awareness.
A home advantage can also consist in being better adapted to the local conditions than the opponent. One example is the home games of the Bolivian national football team , which are often played in the La Paz stadium. Opposing teams often have problems with the extreme altitude of this city (approx. 3,600 meters above sea level). The national teams of Bolivia and Ecuador can therefore look back on an impressive home record. For the qualifying games for the 2010 World Cup , La Paz was approved as a venue by means of an agreement between FIFA and CONMEBOL , although the stadium is above the maximum height of 3,000 m introduced in 2007 for competitive venues .
Football teams who play on artificial turf at home also have a strong home advantage because this is not yet widespread in professional football.
Another competitive advantage is often seen in the fact that, in connection with a home game, there is usually no need to accept travel strains that reduce performance.
All of these factors mean that home wins are generally more common than away wins. For example, in the 2007/08 season of the Bundesliga , there were 143 home wins (46.7%) in 306 games, but only 85 away wins (27.8%) and 78 draws (25.5%). In the long-term average of the Bundesliga since the 1963/1964 season, the average share of home wins is even over 50% (51.2%), since the advantage has decreased over time. The statistical probability of a home win in football was almost twice as high as that of an away win or a draw, which speaks for the considerable importance of the home advantage. The so-called home table is determined from the results achieved in home games .
In motorsport , the home advantage consists primarily of detailed knowledge of the racetrack , as the local driver has held significantly more competitions there, even under different weather conditions.
Details of home law in football
In football, the team that plays the game is generally considered to be the home team. This is determined before the game as part of the draw . This is true even if both teams in the same stadium to play (for example, AC Milan and Inter Milan ) or team their home game at the stadium of the opponent discharges (for example, British Virgin Islands - Bahamas in the qualification for the 2010 World Cup or SV Atlas Delmenhorst - Werder Bremen in round 1 of the DFB Cup 2019/20 ).
- Thomas J. Dohmen: The influence of social forces: Evidence from the behavior of football referees . In: Economic Inquiry . 46, No. 3, 2008. doi : 10.1111 / j.1465-7295.2007.00112.x .
- Research into a species http://www.zeit.de/2002/13/Erforschung_einer_Spezies .
- La Paz approved as a Bolivian venue ( memento of September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
- Arne Jonas Warnke: The home advantage: clear trend over time . April 5, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.