International code of nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICNafp), English International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants , by 2011. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN), one of principle, regulation and recommendation work is for use nomenclature technical terms, rank designations and the scientific naming of algae , fungi and plants . The aim of the ICNafp is to give each affected taxon a unique scientific name. This clarity improves communication about these living beings.
The ICNafp is independent of other nomenclature codes of biology , in particular the International Regulations for the Zoological Nomenclature ( International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , ICZN). For the bacteria and archaebacteria, which have long been covered by the ICNafp, a separate code has been valid since 1980, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria . For crops with their many variety names, the ICNafp is supplemented by the International Code of the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants (ICNCP).
The ICNafp applies equally to the names of taxonomic groups that are treated as algae, fungi or plants, regardless of whether these groups were originally treated as such. The provisions of the ICNafp apply to all organisms that are traditionally treated as algae, fungi or plants, regardless of whether they are fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae ( cyanobacteria ), potty fungi , egg fungi , slime molds , photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related ones , not photosynthetic groups (except microsporidia ).
The rules of the code apply retrospectively until the introduction of the binary nomenclature by Carl von Linné . This was the case on May 1, 1753 in the Species Plantarum and is the central starting point for a valid publication of a name; previously assigned names are not valid.
For some groups of organisms, however, a later "start date" applies. For the mosses (excluding peat moss ) January 1, 1801 applies. For algae, May 1, 1753 also applies to a large extent, but January 1, 1892 for Nostocaceae homocysteae, January 1, 1886 for Nostocaceae heterocysteae, and Desmidiaceae January 1, 1848 and the Oedogoniales January 1, 1900. Fossil organisms, with the exception of diatoms, begin nomenclature on December 31, 1820. In addition, the start date for " supra-generic " taxon names - for subtribe , tribe , family and higher as under #Ranks - of seed and vascular spore plants as well as peat, liver and hornworts , August 4, 1789, the date of publication of the Genera Plantarum by Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu .
All names must follow the rules set out in the current code. The valid scientific name of a taxon is always based on a printed publication - from January 1, 2012 also on a publication on the World Wide Web in Portable Document Format with ISSN or ISBN - in which this species is described and named. The code defines the conditions for this. Since January 1, 1935, this has included adding a Latin description or diagnosis of the species to the name - from January 1, 2012, English will suffice instead of Latin.
Scientific species names always consist of two words ( binary combination). They are to be written in italics in printed texts. The first word denotes the genus to which the species belongs. The silver fir ( Abies alba ), for example, belongs to the genus Abies (fir). The second word ( alba ) is called the kind epithet . It is used to denote the species within the genus.
The generic name must always be capitalized, the specific epithet always small. The species epithet is often an adjective; the gender is then based on the generic name, which is clear from the ending.
The author's name is often abbreviated. A list of standard abbreviations (Brummitt & Powell: Authors of plant names , 1992) is used by the ICNafp itself; its use is also recommended in the ICNafp. An online source for these abbreviations is the International Plant Names Index (IPNI).
The following seven main grades are defined under the rules of the ICNafp:
- Rich (lat. Regnum )
- Department , or trunk ( lat.divisio or phylum )
- Class (lat. Classis )
- Order (lat. Ordo )
- Family (lat. Familia )
- Genus (Latin genus )
- Kind (lat. Species )
However, it is often desirable to be able to make a finer subdivision. For this purpose, the seven main ranks can be further broken down into secondary ranks if necessary.
Families can be divided into tribe (they say a tribe , feminine ). There is no exact German equivalent of the term Tribus . Genera can be further subdivided into sections (lat. Sectio ) and series (lat. Series ), species in varieties ( varietas ) and forms (lat. Forma ). Aggregates (abbreviation agg. = Collective species, i.e. a group of species that are difficult to distinguish) and species groups, on the other hand, have an informal character and are not covered by the ICNafp. In addition, each of these 12 levels can be subdivided again, if necessary. In Latin this is done with the prefix Sub- ( e.g. subregnum , subdivisio , subtribus , subspecies , subforma ), which in German is expressed by the prefix Unter- (Unterreich, Unterabteilung, etc.).
So that the rank does not always have to be mentioned, identifying endings are prescribed for the names of some ranks.
- Empire: -ota
- Sub- kingdom: -bionta
- Department: -phyta (for plants), -mycota (for mushrooms)
- Subdivision: -phytina (for plants), -mycotina (for mushrooms)
- Class: -opsida (in plants), -phyceae (in algae), -mycetes (in fungi)
- Subclass: -idae (for plants), -phycidae (for algae), -mycetidae (for fungi)
- Order: -ales
- Subordination: -ineae
- Family: -aceae
- Subfamily: -oideae
- Tribe: -eae
- Subtribe: -inae
The following abbreviations are also recommended:
- Class: cl.
- Order: ord.
- Family: fam.
- Tribe: tr.
- Genus: gen.
- Section: sect.
- Series: ser.
- Species: sp. (also spec. ), plural: spp.
- Subspecies: subsp. (formerly: ssp. )
- Variety: var.
- Shape: f. (formerly: fo. )
Hybrids are identified with the prefix notho (old gr. For "false"): nothogenus (nothogen.), Nothospecies (nothospec., Nothosp.) Etc. The rank itself does not change as a result.
Since January 1, 1958, a type specimen must be designated on which the description of the species is based. In botany, a type is usually a specimen, rarely an illustration. The nomenclature type of a name is of great importance because it fixes the name, but does not need to be the most representative component of a taxon.
When other botanists study similar plants, it may be necessary to compare them to the type. Sometimes this is the only way to find out whether the plants belong to the same species or not.
If the first author of a species or an infraspecific taxon based his description on a single specimen, this specimen is called the holotype . If the first author has collected and examined several specimens in one place, he can also designate one of them as a holotype and the duplicates as isotypes. When several specimens from different locations are used, one speaks of syntypes .
If the holotype is lost or has not been determined by the author, a lectotype can later be selected from the isotypes or syntypes that are still available . If there is no original material examined by the author prior to publication, it may be necessary to specify a more recent copy called a neotype .
If two authors describe and name the same taxon, the name published first - from the “start date” - is correct (principle of priority). However, the principle of priority does not always apply to ranks above the family (as well as to a subfamily), as names that have evolved over time are available there.
Examples of names of such higher ranks are Plantae, Angiospermae and Monocotyledones; This also applies to nine names of families ( Leguminosae , Palmae , Umbelliferae , Gramineae , Cruciferae , Guttiferae , Labiatae , Compositae , Papilionaceae ) and the name of a subfamily ( Papilionoideae ). In all other cases, only one correct name is allowed for a taxon with a certain boundary, position and rank.
Strict application of the priority rule would have meant that these long-established names would have had to be changed. That is why exceptions have been made here. They are included in a special list of the noun conservanda in the appendix to the code. Further exceptions can also be added here. They must be approved by a vote at an International Congress of Botanists.
For ranks below the species, the name is a combination of the species name with the additional epithet connected by the rank. For example, one insanum variety of Solanum melongena is called : Solanum melongena var. Insanum . Here, too, the epithet, if it is an adjective, is based on the genus name in gender (as with the species epithet). So such names have three parts. Unlike in zoological nomenclature, the species epithet and rank must not be left out.
Change of rank
If you want to classify a family of plants higher or lower in their rank than was previously the case, you have to publish this as a new name combination together with the new rank. To do this, however, the second name - the epithet - should also be used in the new rank, unless that is not possible, namely because this new name combination already exists. The author of the original name, the so-called basionym , must then be given in brackets after it, so it is retained, and the name of the person who carried out the new combination follows. This also applies in the event that a species is transferred from one genus to another. This is different from the rules for zoology, there is only the parenthesized author (= Basionym author) without further names. Example: The common spruce was called " Pinus abies L. " by Linné . Hermann Karsten combined the species in a new way in 1881: He placed it in the genus Picea and took over the last part of the name “ abies ”. This resulted in “ Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. “As a new botanical name.
Despite the stability of the code, there are always new suggestions for changing and improving the ICNafp. These must be proposed in writing to the Standing Nomenclature Committee. If the majority of the committee considers the change to be correct, the International Botanical Congress , which takes place every six (previously every five) years, still has to agree.
After the congress, the regulations will be published under the respective name of the congress location. For example, the rules of the 2005 Congress in Vienna are called Vienna Code for short , previous codes Tokyo Code , St. Louis Code etc.
Originally, all biologists based themselves on a common nomenclature. However, this was not laid down in a binding set of rules, but was based on the recommendations from the corresponding writings by Linnaeus (including Systema Naturae ) and his successors, such as the Théorie élémentaire de la botanique by Augustin-Pyrame de Candolle . However, due to their lack of commitment and incomplete nature, these recommendations left too much room for problems and contradictions.
The first efforts at nomenclature codes included both plants and animals. The so-called Strickland Code , published in 1842 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science , was the first forerunner of today's codes. Charles Darwin was a member of the committee that drafted it . This code was still very simple and clear and many of its rules can still be found in today's codes. At the same time, one of his rules was also the reason for the division between zoologists and botanists that has persisted to the present day: the question of whether the first descriptor of a taxon should be considered the "author" or the person responsible for placing it in the corresponding genus .
At the International Botanical Congress in Paris in 1867, the Swiss Alphonse de Candolle presented a first set of rules consisting of 68 rules, which was aimed exclusively at botanists and became the origin of the ICBN. Every single one of the rules he proposed was revised by a commission, discussed by Congress and finally put into effect or rejected. The resulting set of rules was the first botanical nomenclature code.
This set of rules lasted for several decades, but remained controversial between conservatives and reformers. The code of the Congress of Vienna of 1905 was the first correct ICBN, but again triggered new conflicts: The newly introduced rule that the diagnoses of new taxa had to be written in Latin to be valid led many American botanists to deviate ICBN and for a quarter of a century they followed the American Code of Botanical Nomenclature of the botanist Nathaniel Lord Britton .
With the Cambridge Code , adopted in England in 1930 , not only did American botany return to the ICBN, but a set of rules was also adopted that would serve as the basis for all other codes into the 21st century without major modifications.
The Melbourne Code, adopted in Australia in 2011, renewed the set of rules, especially with regard to the requirements for the 21st century. The title of the code was given here in International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. changed. From January 1, 2012, initial descriptions can be published electronically and their diagnoses can alternatively be written in English instead of Latin. In the case of mushrooms, the separate naming of anamorphic and teleomorphic was abolished on January 1, 2013 and the concept of morphotaxa in paleobotany .
Overview of the previous codes
|Congress venue||Congress year||Official edition||comment|
|Cambridge||1930||1935||Unofficial edition 1934|
|Berlin||1987||1988||Other editions: 1988 (French) / 1989 (German)|
|Tokyo||1993||1994||Other editions: 1995 (German) / 1996 (French)|
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