Kirschgarten Monastery (Worms)
The Kirschgarten Monastery was a Cistercian monastery , which was taken over by the Augustinian Canons from 1443 until it was dissolved in 1525 . It was south-west of the Speyer gate of the city of Worms .
The Bishop of Worms, Heinrich II of Saarbrücken (1217–1234), agreed to the settlement of nuns in the garden area southwest of the city of Worms around 1226. The episcopal chamberlain Richezo and his wife Agnes are named as the founder of the community . They made a garden available with a pond formed by the Eisbach , which they held as a fiefdom from the cathedral chapter. An episcopal monastery grew out of this, and in 1236, Bishop Landolf von Hoheneck (1234–1247) gave the land on which it stood and which is documented for the first time. In 1237 it adopted the Cistercian rule, the monastery church could not be built until 1276. Originally the convent was called Mariengarten , but the name Kirschgarten prevailed, under which name it became generally known. Initially, the Cistercian Abbot from Otterberg exercised the spiritual direction, according to a document from 1285, Kirschgarten, together with the nunnery Klein-Frankenthal, was subordinate to the Abbot of Groß-Frankenthal . A German-Latin psalter from the Kirschgarten Abbey (Codex Liechtenthal 37), which belonged to the nun Anna von Bolanden , who died there in 1320, is kept in the Badische Landesbibliothek in Karlsruhe from this time .
In 1428 the monastery became extinct, only the abbess Guda von Büches lived . A decree of the Council of Basel dated January 18, 1435 called on the Bishop of Worms to renovate the convent. Attempts by Bishop Friedrich von Domneck (1426–1445) to re-settle with Cistercian women failed because the abbots of Schönau and Maulbronn who were contacted did not want to send nuns to Worms.
Therefore, the Worms Shepherd and Elector Ludwig IV (Pfalz) turned to the Windesheim Reform Congregation of the Augustinian Canons. This sent regular canons from the Böddeken monastery , who moved there in 1443, reformed the monastery and quickly made it a local center of church renewal. As a result, the nunnery had become a convent for men.
During this time several important clerics worked there, who left numerous writings. One of them was Johannes von Lambsheim , a theologian, scholar, and religious author. Another, the prior Johannes Heydekyn von Sonsbeck , wrote the Kirschgartener Chronik from around 1500 , which records many locally significant events and u. a. also the vita of the blessed Erkenbert von Frankenthal passed down. In this chronicle it is also noted that the bishop of Eichstätt requested canons from Kirschgarten to reform the Rebdorf monastery there . In 1459 canons of Kirschgarten founded the Franconian Birklingen Monastery in Iphofen . In 1477 the Duke of Württemberg, Eberhard, enlisted the canons of Kirschgarten to reform the Sindelfingen Monastery .
In the Palatinate Peasants' War in 1525, citizens of Worms expelled the canons from the monastery, plundered it and the town took over the property. With the permission of the Palatine Elector, the last 22 canons moved to the neighboring Augustinian monastery of Groß-Frankenthal . On the circumstances of the looting of the monastery, expropriation and relocation to Frankenthal, there is the contemporary report by the Kirschgarten cleric Johann von Stuttgart, printed in the history sheets for the Middle Rhine dioceses , Verlag Kirchheim, Mainz, 1884. Soon, on the orders of the council, the final destruction of the Klosters by gunfire. The canons litigated against the expropriation for years. In 1542 and 1546, mediated by the Electorate of the Palatinate, a settlement was reached in which the city of Worms paid 6,000 guilders in damages and left the Kirschgarten ruins to the Klein-Frankenthal convent, with the condition that they could no longer be rebuilt.
Johann Goswin Widder proves in Part II (page 398) of his attempt at a complete geographic-historical description of the Electoral Palatinate on the Rheine that the Augustinian Canons expelled from the Groß-Frankenthal monastery to Klein-Frankenthal also had to evacuate the latter in 1564 and were granted permission to do so The ruinous Kirschgarten Monastery in Worms is now staying again. It may therefore have been inhabited again for a short time.
The Archive for Hessian History and Archeology , Volume 2, 1841 (page 410) states that the monastery fell into disrepair after the abolition and that the area was later used by the Worms canons to stay in the garden. In 1834 Cornelius Heyl (1792–1858) acquired the area and founded the Cornelius Heyl AG leather works there . In 1841 there were apparently the remains of the monastery buildings, and even then there was nothing left of the church. Today (2012) there are no structural remains of the Kirschgarten Monastery.
In Worms, the Kirschgartenweg is reminiscent of the monastery. It was in that street area.
The Mannheim district of Kirschgartshausen , today part of Mannheim-Sandhofen, takes its name from the Kirschgarten Monastery in Worms. The small settlement was originally called Husen (Hausen) and was sold to the Kirschgarten Monastery in 1275, which is why its name was placed in front of the original and it was now called Kirschgartshausen . The nuns ran an agricultural estate there with an associated St. Gangolf chapel and sold the property to the Electoral Palatinate in 1422 .
In Laumersheim there is the Kirschgarten vineyard , which extends over the fields of the Kirschgarten Monastery there, which owned an estate in the village.
- Franz Falk : The devastation of the Kirschgarten monastery by the Worms in 1525. Report by an eyewitness. In: History sheets for the Middle Rhine dioceses. Vol. 1, No. 3, April 1, 1884, Col. 65-70 , Vol. 1, No. 4, July 1, 1884, Col. 101-105 , Vol. 2, No. 5, October 1, 1884 , Col. 138-142 .
- Joachim Kemper: Monastery reforms in the diocese of Worms in the late Middle Ages (= sources and treatises on the Middle Rhine church history. Vol. 115). Society for Middle Rhine Church History, Mainz 2006, ISBN 3-929135-49-3 , p. 236 (also: Mainz, University, dissertation, 2003/2004), online (PDF; 2.63 MB) .
- Christine Kleinjung: Women's monasteries as communication centers and social spaces. The example of Worms from the 13th to the beginning of the 15th century (= studies and texts on the intellectual and social history of the Middle Ages. Vol. 1). Didymos-Verlag, Korb 2008, ISBN 978-3-939020-21-9 (also: Mainz, University, dissertation, 2005), review .
- Johann Georg Lehmann : Documented history of the monasteries in and near Worms. In: Archive for Hessian History and Archeology. Vol. 2, 1838/1841, , pp. 397-483, here pp. 397-410, scan from the source .
- Paulus Weissenberger OSB: History of the Kirschgarten Monastery in Worms (= Der Wormsgau . Supplement. Vol. 6). City Library, Worms 1937.
- Johann Georg Lehmann: Documented history of the monasteries in and near Worms. In: Archive for Hessian History and Archeology. Vol. 2, 1838/1841, scan from the source . , pp. 397-483, here pp. 397-410,
- Franz Xaver Remling : Documented history of the former abbeys and monasteries in what is now Rhine Bavaria , Volume 2, Page 10, Neustadt an der Haardt, 1836; Scan from the source
- Digital scan of the psalter from the Kirschgarten monastery, Codex Liechtenthal 37 .
- Christa Bertelsmeier-Kierst: Praying and contemplating - writing and painting. Cistercian women and their contribution to the book in the 13th century. In: Anton Schwob, Karin Kranich-Hofbauer: Cistercian writing in the Middle Ages. The scriptorium of the Reiner Mönche (= yearbook for international German studies. Series A: Congress reports. Vol. 71). Lang, Bern et al. 2005, ISBN 3-03-910416-0 , pp. 163–177, here p. 176, scan from the source .
- On Johannes Heydekyn von Sonsbeck
- Website for the Kirschgarten Chronicle .
- Ottokar Lorenz : Germany's historical sources in the Middle Ages since the middle of the thirteenth century. Volume 1. 3., revised edition. Hertz, Berlin 1886, p. 133, scan from the source .
- Paulus Weissenberger OSB: History of the Kirschgarten Monastery in Worms , Der Wormsgau , Supplement No. 6, Worms City Library, 1937, p. 71
- Joachim Kemper: Monastery reforms in the diocese of Worms in the late Middle Ages. 2006, pp. 256-258.
- Scan from Widder's country description .
- Scan from the source
- Kirschgartshausen website .
- To the Laumersheimer Kirschgarten vineyard .