Luise Kraushaar

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Luise Kraushaar , born as Luise Olga Charlotte Szepansky , (* February 13, 1905 in Berlin-Wedding ; † January 10, 1989 in East Berlin ) was a German resistance fighter against National Socialism (among others in the Resistance ) and SED functionary.


Luise Kraushaar was the daughter of the painter Emil Szepansky and his wife Margarete geb. Schmidt. The family originally lived in Wedding and moved to the suburb of Mariendorf before the First World War . In 1919 they became a member of the Free Socialist Youth , which in 1920 became the Communist Youth Association and later chairwoman of the Mariendorf local association. In 1924 she also joined the KPD . She attended a lyceum and completed a commercial training, during which she also organized herself as a union in the Central Association of Employees from 1923 .

Around 1930, Luise Kraushaar was a secretary in the KPD's M apparatus with special tasks: she deciphered spy messages, typed lists of names and reports. She had her office with Albert Einstein's secretary - the KPD had rented a room from Helene Dukas . The tenant of the apartment was not Einstein's secretary, but her sister Rosa Dukas . Even Leo Roth , member of the Information Service of the KPD for "special connections" and life's companion of the general's daughter Helga von Hammerstein-Equord had a key to this apartment in Friedenau .

Until her emigration she worked for Wilhelm Bahnik in the BB-Apparat (for operational reporting of the KPD) , after her emigration this function was taken over by Erna Eifler . In 1934 she emigrated to the Soviet Union through the CSR and worked there in the intelligence service of the Comintern (KI), from June 1934 she was in the OMS encryption department under the direction of Abramov .

In December 1935 she was sent to Paris, where she worked again with Paula Nuding , among others, for the encryption department of the AI ​​intelligence service and, from 1937, for the “Deutsche Informationen” news agency, which was headed by Bruno Frei . From April 1939 she worked as Hans Renner's secretary for the Paris emigre committee . In May 1940 she was arrested and taken by French authorities to the Gurs internment camp , from which she was able to escape a short time later with Irene Wosikowski and Thea Saefkow . From June 1940 she lived in Toulouse , from December 1940 as Otto Niebergall's secretary and she became a member of the KPD leadership for southern France. In 1941 she met Maria Leitner in Marseille . In November 1943 she moved to this city herself and supported the Resistance and the “ Movement Free Germany for the West ” (CALPO) through the editorial staff of the newspaper Our Fatherland . In 1944/45 she was the CALPO commissioner for work among German prisoners of war in France.

After the liberation of Germany in 1945, she first went to Hamburg . In 1947 she became an instructor for cadre policy in the apparatus of the Central Committee of the SED in Berlin . She then worked for a while at the Ministry of Culture of the GDR , later head of department in the publishing house headquarters and from 1958 as a research assistant in the Central Party Archive (ZPA) and the Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED , where she did research and publications SED on the German anti-fascist resistance movement.

During her stay in France, she had a perfect command of French and was therefore commissioned, together with Karl-Heinz Biernat, who is responsible for the history of the Red Chapel in the IML, to oversee a publication coordinated between the MfS main department IX / 11 and the IML.

In 1980 she was awarded the Gold Medal for the Patriotic Order of Merit .

Your younger brother is Wolfgang Szepansky .

Fonts (selection)

  • During the Second World War in Paris, Nimes a. Marseille. In: Heinz Voßke (Ed.): Proven in combat. Memories. Berlin 1969
  • German resistance fighters 1933 to 1945. Berlin 1970.
  • The Schulze-Boysen / Harnack organization in the anti-fascist struggle. (With Karl Heinz Biernat) Berlin 1970.
  • Berlin communists in the fight against fascism 1936–1942. Robert Uhrig and comrades. Berlin 1981.


Individual evidence

  1. a b Birth register StA Berlin XIIIb No. 319/1905 .
  2. ^ The Einstein file in: Friday April 22, 2005
  3. ^ Siegfried Grundmann: Einstein's file p. 612
  4. Hans-Rainer Sandvoss : The “other” capital of the Reich: Resistance from the workers' movement in Berlin from 1933 to 1945 . Lukas-Verlag, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-936872-94-1 , p. 401 f.
  5. DRAFD reports May 2001 (p. 8) (PDF; 857 kB)
  6. ^ Escape from Paris
  7. Johannes Tuchel : The forgotten resistance p. 256ff
  8. ^ Neues Deutschland , March 7, 1980, p. 2