A magazine broadcast is a radio or television format . Magazine programs are broadcast at regular intervals, usually on a weekly basis, and are assigned to a specific topic. Following the example of the print media , in which news magazines or business magazines dominate, listeners or viewers of the electronic media should also be offered a regular compilation of information from a specific subject area. The best-known types of this form of broadcast are political magazines , business magazines , cultural magazines and regional magazines .
The individual contributions of a program are researched and compiled by an editorial team . The presenters have to link the task of the individual reports or reports and by appropriate introductions ( Anmoderation ) to facilitate the entry of listeners or viewers in the subject. Short comments, discussions or studio talks can also be elements of a magazine program.
The individual magazine episodes are usually recorded in a specific radio or television studio and designed in a uniform manner. A virtual television studio in which the presenter moves through a backdrop that is invisible to him was tested for the first time worldwide in 1995 as part of a live broadcast by the business magazine WISO on ZDF .
Components of a magazine
The opener that opens each episode is characteristic of every magazine program . This usually includes a title melody (fanfare) with a catchy melody and possibly a preview of the content of the issue (teaser). There are also visual effects on television .
The consistent line of a magazine program, which is reflected in the trailer , the “Signation” (Austrian for characteristic melody), jingles for individual categories appearing in each issue , tries to establish a catchy CI with the viewer in order to guarantee recognition value . A separate sound design is usually created for a series .
On TV, there is also the screen design , which consists of uniformly designed graphic elements, such as column headings, waistbands , discounts (boards at the end of a contribution on which the names of the editor , cameraman and editor are listed) and the logos . Both the sound design and the screen design can more or less extend to an entire transmitter. The newsrooms of ZDF all had the same logo: several spheres shifted one inside the other. In addition to the sound design for the news broadcasts on Sat 1 , the composer Richard Ryan Graves also created the signature melody (“Signation”) and the interludes for the magazine program, Act 09 .
The moderators act as presenters and companions through the program. In the introduction, they give a foretaste of the following contributions, provide explanations of the individual contributions and hold studio talks. A studio guest, who can also be integrated into the program by “ switching ” over a telephone or image line, deepens the relationships described in a contribution in a conversation with the moderator. In rare cases, a talk is unrelated to the contributions.
The moderators often take a position themselves or present themselves as advocates or advisors to their audience. A double moderation, in which two moderators appear, is often conducted in the style of a double conference in which they take on certain roles for the viewer. Your self-staging is perceived by the audience as a decisive element, less the work of the editors.
Individual content-related components of the magazine are called articles or “pieces”. On the radio, these are “ built contributions ” in which original sounds predominate. The topic of a TV magazine article is usually a more specific topic that is subordinate to the broader topic of the TV magazine. A TV magazine report lasts between one and 15 minutes.
Both in radio and television magazines that deal specifically with political content and information, e.g. B. domestic and foreign policy magazines, there are often summaries that present a topic related to the topicality in short, mostly 30 seconds long news . On television such messages are called NiF blocks, NiF stands for “message in the film”.
Another form of contribution is the short report, in which a reporter guides you through a single topic. In the series Die Reporter , which was broadcast on Pro 7 from 1993 , up to four short reports were compiled into a half-hour magazine in which the reporters also took on the moderation.
Magazine broadcast on the radio
Because of the simpler and faster editing options, there were magazine broadcasts on radio long before the first TV magazine broadcasts. Most of the components were then taken over from the television series, their essential elements are therefore largely identical.
While discussion rounds and “ built articles ” were an integral part of a magazine broadcast up until the 1990s , the term is now also used in radio for broadcasts lasting several hours in which the music component predominates. In these cases, the word content is often limited to program elements such as quiz questions and telephone interviews.
Magazine show on TV
The television magazine goes back historically to the magazine broadcasts on the radio. It was not until the 1960s that the first concepts for magazine programs developed on German television, partly due to improved technologies. The first political magazine was Panorama , which first aired on June 4, 1961. This was followed Monitor (1965), Report Baden-Baden or report Munich (1966) and contrasts (1968).
In addition to the domestic political magazines, there was the Weltspiegel from 1963 with the focus on international reporting. This magazine was developed and initially moderated by Gerd Ruge . From 1969 to 1988 ZDF presented its ZDF magazine .
Private broadcasters followed at the end of the 1980s :
- from 1988 Spiegel TV magazine on RTL ,
- from 1990 Stern-TV also on RTL.
- In 1990 Spiegel TV reportage appeared on Sat 1 ;
- in 1995 nudes - reporters reveal as in-house production.
- Pro 7 had its first successes with Die Reporter from 1993 .
- Werner Faulstich : Basic course in television analysis. Fink, Paderborn 2008, ISBN 978-3-7705-4683-1 . (Chapter magazine broadcasts, pp. 87–93.)
- Ruth Blaes, Gregor A. Heussen (Ed.): ABC of television. UVK, Konstanz 1997, ISBN 3-89669-029-9 . (Chapter Magazine - The Daily Exciting Puzzle. Pp. 189–194.)
- Werner Faulstich: Basic course in television analysis. Fink, Paderborn 2008, p. 88
- Gerhard Schult, Axel Buchholz (ed.): TV journalism. A Manual for Education and Practice. 5th edition. List, Munich 1997, p. 115
- Helmut Reitze: Graphics and electronic representation. Pictures as intended. In: Ruth Blaes, Gregor A. Heussen (Hrsg.): ABC des Fernsehens. UVK, Konstanz 1997, pp. 405-409
- Gerd Berger: Reporter Magazines. Hot and close. In: Ruth Blaes, Gregor A. Heussen (Hrsg.): ABC des Fernsehens. UVK, Konstanz 1997, pp. 207-212