A lens bayonet is the most common lens connection for interchangeable lenses in photo technology . It is designed differently depending on the manufacturer and is based on "noses" around the rear lens of the objective, which engage in corresponding recesses in the flange ring on the camera housing.
The advantage of a bayonet connection compared to screw connections is that it is easy to use: The attachment position is usually marked with a colored point on the camera housing and lens. With a turn (usually by 60 to 90 degrees), the lens and camera are coupled with one another and you don't have to change your grip. It only requires precise positioning and turning to lock it into place; when the correct coupling is achieved, the lens engages. The lens can be unlocked again using a button on the camera housing or lens.
The distance between the film or sensor and the lens support on the bayonet is known as the flange focal length , it differs depending on the manufacturer and is often around 45 mm for 35 mm reflex cameras, and usually less than 20 mm for mirrorless systems of the same image format .
In addition to the pure fastening function, elements of the sensors and actuators are usually integrated in the bayonet:
- The camera housing is informed (by means of a lug or electrical contacts) by how much the incidence of light will be reduced during the exposure process when the open aperture of the lens closes to the preselected value for exposure.
- Shortly before the exposure process, the housing instructs the lens to close the aperture: usually by relieving a pretensioned spring of the lens by a certain distance.
- With autofocus cameras, the lens groups in the lens are shifted in order to focus using a motor. Depending on the model and manufacturer, this motor can be located in the camera housing and is coupled to the lens via a shaft in the lens bayonet, or the entire drive is located in the lens, and only an electrical transmission of control information takes place.
- Modern bayonets for digital cameras transmit a great deal of additional information between the camera electronics and lens, such as the set focal length or information relating to anti-shake mechanisms. Some of them are saved in the Exif data.
Current bayonets in digital photography
The maximum aperture angle on the image side results from the diameter of the exit pupil and the flange focus as follows:
The Abbe sine condition can be used to determine the minimum f-number at which theoretically no image errors must occur on the image axis:
|bayonet||Sensor size||Back focus||diameter||Maximum opening angle on the image side
||Minimum f-number||Camera type||Camera series|
|Canon EF||Full format||44 mm||54 mm||63 °||0.96||(D) SLR||Canon EOS|
|Canon EF-M||APS-C||18 mm||47 mm||105 °||0.63||DSLM||Canon EOS M|
|Canon EF-S||APS-C||44 mm||54 mm||63 °||0.96||DSLR||Canon EOS|
|Canon RF||Full format||20 mm||54 mm||107 °||0.62||DSLM||Canon EOS R|
|Fujifilm G.||Medium format||26.7 mm||65 mm||101 °||0.65||DSLM||Fujifilm GX|
|Fujifilm X||APS-C||17.7 mm||44 mm||102 °||0.64||DSLM||Fujifilm X|
|Hasselblad HCD||Medium format||61.63 mm||67.5 mm||DSLR||Hasselblad H.|
|Hasselblad XCD||Medium format||20 mm||61 mm||DSLM||Hasselblad X|
|Leica L||Full format and APS-C||20 mm||51.6 mm||104 °||0.63||DSLM||Leica CL, SL , TL2; Panasonic Lumix S; Sigma|
|Leica M||Full format||27.8 mm||44 mm||77 °||0.81||Rangefinder / DSLM||Leica M|
|Leica S||Medium format||53 mm||66 mm||64 °||0.95||DSLR||Leica S|
|Micro Four Thirds||4/3 ″||19.25 mm||38 mm||89 °||0.71||DSLM||Olympus Pen, OM-D; Panasonic Lumix G|
|Nikon 1||1"||17 mm||40 mm||99 °||0.66||DSLM||Nikon 1|
|Nikon F||Full format and APS-C||46.5 mm||44 mm||51 °||1.17||(D) SLR|
|Nikon Z||Full format and APS-C||16 mm||55 mm||120 °||0.58||DSLM||Nikon Z 6 , Z 7 , Z 50|
|Pentax K||Full format and APS-C||45.46 mm||44 mm||52 °||1.15||(D) SLR|
|Pentax Q||1 / 2.3 ″, 1 / 1.7 ″||9.2 mm||31 mm||119 °||0.58||DSLM|
|Pentax 645||Medium format||70.87 mm||61.2 mm||47 °||1.26||(D) SLR|
|Sigma SA||Full format||44 mm||(D) SLR / DSLM|
|Sony A||Full format and APS-C||44.5 mm||49.7 mm||58 °||1.03||(D) SLR||Sony α|
|Sony E||Full format and APS-C||18 mm||46.1 mm||104 °||0.63||DSLM||Sony α (also known as NEX)|
SLR = analog single-lens reflex camera, DSLR = digital single-lens reflex camera, DSLM = mirrorless system camera
Historical and classic bayonet connections
Well-known historical and classic bayonet connections for 35mm cameras are u. a.
- Praktina bayonet (production of the Praktina from 1952 to 1960)
- Exakta bayonet (production of cameras with Exakta bayonet: 1936–1979)
- Praktica B bayonet (" PB-Mount ", production of the Praktica B cameras from 1978 to 2001).
A well-known bayonet connection for medium format cameras is the P6 bayonet originally developed for the Praktisix , but widely used by the Pentacon Six and the Kiev 60 .
- ↑ Opening angle , Wikibook digital imaging methods , chapter Basics , accessed on March 18, 2019
- ↑ Sinus Conditions , Wikibook Digital Imaging Methods , Chapter Basics , accessed on March 18, 2019
- ↑ a b Jon Fauer: New Lens Mount FFD and ID Chart , fdtimes.com, October 12, 2016, accessed January 2, 2018.