Orange-red knightling ( Tricholoma aurantium )
|( Schaeff. ) Ricken|
The Orange Red Knight Ling ( Tricholoma aurantium ) is a fungal art from the family of Ritterlingsartige relatives (Tricholomataceae). It is rarely found in Central Europe and is mainly found in Scandinavia and in the limestone regions of the mountains.
The hat reaches a diameter of six to twelve centimeters. It is bright orange-red or yellow-orange in color. The surface is finely flaky or almost smooth and quite smeary. The hat rubs off when touched. The edge of the hat is initially rolled up and later bent into a wavy shape.
The lamellae are first white, then tinted pale yellow. They have reddish or reddish brown spots especially on the edges and on pressure. The leaves are crowded and pinned in a bunch.
The stem reaches a length between four and eight centimeters and a thickness of 1.5 to 2 centimeters. At the top it has a whitish zone, which is sharply demarcated from the lower stem section. Furthermore, this area is provided with tears. Underneath, the stem has an orange-red, dotted-grainy coating, which makes it appear strikingly colorful.
The spore powder is white.
The orange-red knight is well characterized by its lively hat colors. The Collared Knight ( Tricholoma focale ) is a little similar , but, as the name suggests, has a stem ring. In addition, his hat colors are a bit darker and more brownish or brick-red.
The orange-red knight can be found in hairy barley and orchid-beech forests as well as in fir-beech forests with interspersed spruce or pine trees . It can also be found in spruce and forest pine forests, forest edges and clearings as well as juniper heaths.
The fungus prefers moderately fresh to freshly moist, shallow to medium-sized, neutral to alkaline soils that are saturated with bases. These are usually located over lime or heavily calcareous ground.
The fruiting bodies usually appear in small groups, occasionally also in witch rings between the end of July and the beginning of November, and later if the weather permits. The fungus forms a mycorrhiza with conifers, especially spruce and pine.
The orange-red knight is widespread in the Holarctic from meridional to boreal . It can be found in North America (Canada, USA), Europe, North Africa, and North Asia ( Caucasus , Central Asia). In Europe, the species can be found in the Nordic-montane area. It has a distribution focus in Scandinavia and is much more patchy in the lowlands south of the North and Baltic Seas. In Central and Southern Europe there is an increasing montane tendency. The area extends from Great Britain, the Netherlands, where the mushroom is rare, and France (Alpine region) to the east to Estonia, Belarus and Hungary and to the south to the Balearic Islands , Italy, Sicily, Greece and Romania and north to the Hebrides .
In Germany, the distribution pattern is quite uneven. It is moderately widespread in southern Germany, with clear densities in the limestone Alps , the Jura mountains , the Baar and the eastern Black Forest . To the north of this, the species is rare up to the low mountain range and only sporadically to be found in the north German flat and hill country. It has not yet been detected in the federal states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and large parts of Lower Saxony.
The stocks of the orange-red knight have been in a sharp decline since 1970. Despite the significant reduction in SO x emissions, they have not recovered. This fact is attributed to the increasing pollution of the topsoil with nitrogen compounds from agriculture and traffic. The species is on the red lists of several federal states and European states.
The orange-red knight owes its color, among other things, to the pigment aurantricholone, which is a benztropolone derivative and has pulvinone structures as a substructure . In addition to aurantricholone, the aurantricholides A and B, which are E-pulvinones, were isolated. Aurantricholide A and B show strong fluorescence. Pulvinones with an E-configured exocyclic double bond are extremely rare and otherwise only found in Pulveroboletus ravenelii . Pulvinones are tetronic acid derivatives. Aurantricholone is at least partially present in vivo as the calcium salt.
Because of its astringent, bitter taste, the orange-red knight is inedible.
- German Josef Krieglsteiner (Ed.), Andreas Gminder : Die Großpilze Baden-Württemberg . Volume 3: Mushrooms. Leaf mushrooms I. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3536-1 .
- German Josef Krieglsteiner (Ed.), Andreas Gminder: Die Großpilze Baden-Württemberg. Volume 3: Mushrooms. Blattpilze I. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-8001-3536-1 , p. 526 f. (for the entire paragraph).
- Dörte Klostermeyer, Liliana Knops, Tilman Sindlinger, Kurt Polborn, Wolfgang Steglich: Novel Benzotropolone and 2H-Furo [3,2-b] benzopyran-2-one Pigments from Tricholoma aurantium (Agaricales) . In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry . tape 2000 , no. 4 , February 1, 2000, ISSN 1099-0690 , doi : 10.1002 / (sici) 1099-0690 (200002) 2000: 4% 3C603 :: aid-ejoc603% 3E3.0.co; 2-5 .