Philipp Baum

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Portrait of Philipp Baum - around 1880
Baum as a Prussian officer candidate around 1880
Coat of arms of the Baum family

Philipp Baum (born November 20, 1849 in Schwabenheim an der Selz ; † November 3, 1886 there ) was a German architect .


Philipp Baum was born the son of a farmer. His grandfather Georg was adjunct of the Schwabenheim community in the 1830s and his father was police commissioner, alderman and member of the community council in 1850 and mayor of the Schwabenheim community from 1853 to 1868. Until his death, he was the highest taxed resident of the community.

Philipp Baum attended the Protestant elementary school in Schwabenheim. For the winter semester of 1871/1872 and the second semester of 1872 at the construction school of the Polytechnic School in Darmstadt , Baum registered and paid an entrance fee of 25 guilders each. According to the address directory of the university in Darmstadt, which was drawn up in 1885, Baum only studied there for these two semesters. He is listed in this directory as an architect and lives in Mainz . He then continued his studies in Vienna and Stuttgart. Then he made extensive study trips in Europe. It is not known which exams he passed.

After completing his studies and his study trips, Baum probably went to Prague to work on the Stern Castle project on the White Mountain . In 1874, Falke and Baum are said to have made the plans for the mosaic and ceramic floor and in 1877 Baum published the book Schloss Stern with 40 high quality panels. He then set up a studio for architecture and applied arts in Mainz. According to the address book of the city of Mainz, he had had a studio in the Upper Town of Mainz , Linsenberg 3, since 1881 .

In addition to his architectural work, the focus was now on the arts and crafts. This is how Baum's collaboration with Villeroy & Boch in Mettlach came about . Salzgeber writes about this:

"The most important thing in this direction, however, was the floor, composed in the sense of a rich barocco, for the huge collegiate church in Einsiedeln in Switzerland, which in terms of size and character has no equal in the entire modern art industry."

- Salzgeber

Repeated exhibitions of his drawings brought him recognition in professional circles. But his architectural work was not neglected either. As part of the city ​​expansion of Mainz beyond the Große Bleiche and the Kaiserstraße , he designed several city palaces. With the exception of one, all of them perished in the air raid on Mainz by the Allied bomber units.

Baum died relatively young at the age of 37 in the house of his brother Friedrich Baum in Schwabenheim.


After completing his studies, Baum worked on the renovation of the Stern pleasure palace near Prague. Baum must have worked there for a long time, because in 1877 he published the book Schloss Stern bei Prag for the EA Seemann publishing house in Leipzig .

From the order books of Villeroy & Boch

Symbolic figures of the four seasons at the Villa Schifferdecker in Heidelberg

The design was commissioned by the entrepreneur Dr. Paul Schifferdecker (in the Portland-Cement -Werk Heidelberg Schifferdecker & Söhne oHG , today HeidelbergCement ). The house is located in the Neuenheim district , Neuenheimer Landstrasse 101-103.

Rosette with the four elements for a building in Dresden

The order was placed by Villeroy & Boch and carried out in 1886. The factory was probably intended for a company-owned building in Dresden. The company Villeroy & Boch founded a branch in Dresden in 1856. Due to the expansion of the company, the factory facilities were constantly expanded.

Round frieze fish

The company Villeroy & Boch placed the order to design an arched frieze with fish for a water basin.

Liebfrauenkirche in Dortmund

In this church a mosaic with St. George and the papal coat of arms was laid.

Arched fields for the Villa Rebentisch

The villa was built in 1883 by the architect and builder Carl August Rebentisch (1846–1890) and lived in until his death. It was located at Spohrstraße 13a and was destroyed in the Second World War.

Coat of arms for the Minister of War

The client was the Prussian War Minister Paul Bronsart von Schellendorff , nothing is known about the whereabouts of the work.

Pedestal birds with ornament

This pen mosaic was commissioned by Edmund Bloch (Mettlach) in 1883 for the Villa Gattel.

Pilgrimage church in Einsiedeln

In the order book of the company Villeroy & Boch, the order is referred to as detailed drawings of the papal, cardinal and bishop's coats of arms, a large rose window with 12 heavenly symbols, 4 planets, day and night, covering the chapel of grace . In 1884 Baum received the order from the governor of the monastery, Father Raphael Kuhn, to redesign the floor with pen mosaic and ceramic plates from the Villeroy & Boch company for the monastery church in Maria Einsiedeln, Switzerland, together with the Dompräbdaten Schneider. He also designed the pilaster ornament in the vestibule and porch.

Female figure with writing “Qui si sana” in Bad Oeynhausen

"Qui si sana" means "Here you get well". The term is often used in health resorts for hotels and bathing facilities. From 1883 to 1885 a new bathhouse (bathhouse IV, now called bathhouse II) was built in Bad Oeynhausen by the architect Zygmunt Gorgolewski.

Frieze and sketch St. Paulin, Trier

According to the information from the Catholic parish office of St. Paulin in Trier on July 3, 2001 nothing is left of the frieze and the 1,800 m² paving.

St. Gudula Church, Roadstead

The same St. George was moved here as in the Liebfrauenkirche in Rhede. The work was carried out after Baum's death. The following pictures show the floor covering still preserved today:

Small eagle with corner decorations

In 1887 Baum was commissioned by a Seidel to design a small eagle with corner decorations for pin mosaic.

Mausoleum on the Rosenhöhe , Darmstadt

In the 1880s he was commissioned by the Grand Duke of Hesse and the Rhine to design the floor and other decorations in the mausoleum on Rosenhöhe near Darmstadt. The mosaic floor is completely destroyed by frost.

New building in Würzburger, Mannheim

In the handwritten documents in the company archive of the Villeroy & Boch company, Baum is mentioned with another work. It is the decoration of an entrepreneur's building in Mannheim.

Building as part of the Mainz city expansion

Several city palaces that were built as part of the city expansion of Mainz bore his signature. The achievements he made can be seen in the only surviving house at Kaiserstraße 35. It was built in 1883/1884 in the neo-renaissance style with the great variety of forms of historicism . The blueprint is dated July 2, 1883. Georg Panizza was named as the client. The building is now a listed building. The State Monuments Office describes the house as follows:

“On the ground floor gate drive with the original two-leaf door leaf and rich wrought-iron grille preserved. The main floor by large Ädikulafenster and Blendbalusterbrüstungen highlighted the central box bay window richly decorated with columns order and fitting work. The final floor is characterized by small, coupled arched windows and a richly decorated frieze zone as a mezzanine . The central axis is raised by a gable with obelisk attachments. In the doorway, pilaster structure and floor, the stairwell with colored glazing, filigree banisters and associated doors have been preserved. The house is architecturally sophisticated and executed with high quality craftsmanship and was presented in the Architectural Review in 1889. "

The house on Kaiserstraße has many interesting details that survived the Second World War
In the Berlin Architecture Museum there is a folder with 35 plans by Philipp Baum.

Pencil drawings

At the age of 14 he was already making pencil drawings. The oldest depicts a wounded soldier of Napoleon in the Russian campaign in 1812.

Soldier in Russia under Napoleon

Other pencil drawings are known:

Motifs from his study trip to Italy

There are 2 watercolors and an oil painting from 1869.

Carnival costumes for the Mainz Carnival Association

Baum also designed carnival costumes for the Mainz Carnival Association.


Baum also designed some ceramic pieces:


  • Stern Castle near Prague. EA Seemann publishing house, Leipzig 1877.


The journal Kunstchronik published a necrology apparently taken from the Darmstädter Zeitung :

“In addition to his practical goals, he was already active early on in the field of art history and proved and a. his ability in this area through an excellent publication of the Stern Castle near Prague, famous for its layout and picturesque furnishings.
Since his establishment in Mainz, he has primarily been engaged in arts and crafts, for which his connections to the large-scale industry of Villeroy and Boch in Mettlach offered him constant opportunities. A number of delicately perceived and tasteful achievements emerged from this; in particular, he worked on designs for mosaic floors using ancient Roman models with decided luck. The most important thing in this direction, however, was the floor, composed in the sense of a rich barocco, for the huge collegiate church in Einsiedeln in Switzerland, a work that has no equal in size and character in the whole of the modern art industry. Study trips to Italy, as well as to Belgium, Holland and England promoted Baum's artistic development as well as they gave him the opportunity to amass a wealth of the most splendid studies from all areas. Baum was a master in a fine, tasteful, indeed delightful rendering of architectural monuments, but especially of picturesque, decorative and crafted details. What he created in this direction can be regarded as excellent study material for art institutes. Repeated exhibitions of his traveling fruits brought him the recognition he deserved and at the same time paved the way for him to diverse activities. Decorative tasks were also important to him in Darmstadt, including a. transferred in the mausoleum on Rosenhöhe. A widespread effectiveness resulted for him with the local city expansion. A number of new buildings are linked to his name: the pithy structure of the architecture is combined with neatly treated details and a painterly overall attitude. At last he returned to the elegant simplicity of a Florentine renaissance in the composed facade of the Falk-Ring house on the boulevard and - unfortunately - and with it, ended his creative activity at an early stage. Under severe sickness his strength slackened, since he had hardly crossed the threshold of manhood. In addition to his artistic talent, which was mainly expressed in pleasing representations, the harmless nature of his being earned him favor and affection in the broadest circles. What he created bears the stamp of a sensitive nature through and through: Each of his achievements will therefore also remain a monument to his type of senses and his striving. "

- (Darmst. Ztg.)

Web links

Commons : Philipp Baum  - Collection of images, videos and audio files


  • Address directory of the former students of the higher vocational school, the technical school and the polytechnic school, respectively. Technical University of Darmstadt. Darmstadt 1885.
  • Gottfried Braun: Schwabenheim an der Selz. History of a Rheinhessen village. Schwabenheim community, Schwabenheim 2000.
  • Gottfried Braun: Schwabenheimer Lagerbuch from the year 1800. In: Heimatbeilage, Blätter für Kultur und Heimatpflege, supplement to the official gazette of the Gau-Algesheim community , no. 1/1998.
  • The Mettlacher clay pen mosaic in the service of art. (Advertising leaflet from Villeroy & Boch, after 1935.)
  • Margit Euler: Studies on building ceramics by Villeroy & Boch 1869–1914. (Part 1: Tiles from the mosaic factory in Mettlach .; Part 2: Terracottas from the terracotta factory in Merzig. ) Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Bonn 1994.
  • Jakob von Falke: Schloss Stern. KK Central Commission for Research and Conservation of Art and Historical Monuments, Vienna 1879.
  • Georg Haupt: The architectural and art monuments of the city of Darmstadt. Roether, Darmstadt 1954.
  • Baldur Köster: Bad Oeynhausen. A 19th century architecture museum. Hirmer, Munich 1985.
  • Kunstchronik, weekly journal for arts and crafts. NF 1 / 1888/1889, Col. 87 and 107.
  • A work of art made of stone that will last through the centuries. (Advertising leaflet from the Villeroy & Boch company with the mosaic carpet of the Chapel of Grace of the Maria Einsiedeln Collegiate Church, around 1935.)
  • Mettlach. A place of Christian art. (Advertising leaflet from Villeroy & Boch, 1935.)
  • Georg Holzher: Einsiedeln. Monastery and Church of Our Lady. From the Carolingian era to the present. Schnell and Steiner, Regensburg 2006.
  • Mosaic factory of Villeroy & Boch in Mettlach: Directory of the larger public buildings in which Mettlach mosaic and wall panels, facing bricks and pin mosaics (musical works) in glass and clay cubes were made.
  • Museum of Czech Literature, The Hvezda, Summer Pavilion, a National Cultural Monument 1. Category. (Leaflet of the Museum of Czech Literature) Prague 2000.
  • Joachim Salzgeber: A Hundred Years of Einsiedeln church floor. In: Maria Einsiedeln, Benedictine monthly magazine, official organ of the pilgrimage. No. 11, 1984.
  • General artist lexicon. KG Saur, Munich 2001.
  • Angela Schumacher, Ewald Wegner: Cultural monuments in Rhineland-Palatinate. Volume 2.1: City of Mainz, city extensions in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Düsseldorf 1986.
  • Lecture hall, official journal for the Association of Ceramic Crafts. Volume 22, No. 34 (from August 22, 1889)
  • Peter Springer: The Cologne Cathedral Mosaic. An interior design project of historicism between the Middle Ages and the modern age. Cologne Cathedral Publishing House, Cologne 1991.
  • The House of Villeroy & Boch 1748, Alt Mettlach. The aesthetics of a new era. (Brochure from Villeroy & Boch, 2000.)
  • Rudolf Kautzsch : Baum, Philipp . In: Ulrich Thieme , Felix Becker (Hrsg.): General Lexicon of Fine Artists from Antiquity to the Present . Founded by Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker. tape 3 : Bassano – Bickham . Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig 1909, p. 77 ( Textarchiv - Internet Archive ).