Bat ball

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Playing field and line-up
Game between Spiekeroog and Langeoog

Batting is a team sport in which two teams of twelve players each play against each other. Batting is considered the origin of baseball . The game was often referred to as the "Deutschball" in the past. Similar games are the Russian Lapta , Polish Palant, and Romanian Oină .



The origin of the batball games still known today goes back a long way in history. It is historically proven that the Maya, Inca and Chinese already had games in which the ball was pushed with club-shaped clubs. However, the parallels to the sport of ball games should not be overestimated.

Schlagball in Germany

At the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, several related sports developed in Europe, such as rounders in England and Ireland , stoolball and cricket (criquet) in England , Brännbol in Sweden , Langbold and Rundbold in Denmark , pelota in the Basque Country and batting or "Deutschball" in Germany (also known as the Kaiserball in Austria). The history of its origins remains in the dark. Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths describes in his book Games for Exercise and Recreation of the Body and Mind , published in 1796, under the name The German Ball Game , the basic rules for the ball game and emphasizes:

“This game, which has not yet been edited anywhere, deserves a precise description. My purpose here is not to be entertaining; one tries to understand these dry things, the entertainment lies in the practice. "

In addition to the idea of the game , the playing field, the ball and the bat (known as raquette) GuthsMuths describes the rules in detail. A sketch of the playing field is also printed in his book.

The batball game seems to have been very popular as early as the early 19th century. In the dictionary of the German language of 1810, a ball is referred to as a battering ball, “if it is hit, it is driven away by a blow” (ie not thrown). In a medical work from 1829, a ball is used to indicate the size of a part in a human body. Victor Blüthgen , born in 1844, writes:

"When the summer weather was good, battering ball was our daily game during my high school years, and I still consider it the best exercise game for boys."

Meyer's Lexicon from 1909 has an article on batter:

“Schlagball (game ball, Kaiserball), old German movement game that has now been displaced by English lawn tennis. It is played by two parties of 4, 5, 6 or more people on an area 40 to 50 paces long and 30 paces wide with a small elastic ball 5 to 6 cm in diameter and sticks. The two parties, each with a leader, are the ruling (striking party) and serving (catching party). In the middle of the two narrower border lines of the game rectangle are the stroke mark and catch mark. The ball is poured from the stroke, i.e. H. thrown to a bat who tries to beat him to comrades with the stick after the catch mark and then runs a run to this target and back again. Both rulers and servants strive to catch the ball, and the latter are obliged to throw it back into the field as soon as the opportunity does not arise immediately to win the blow, whereupon the roles of the parties change. The stroke is won: 1) when a servant catches the ball out of the air, 2) when a servant can hit the running bat with the ball, and 3) when the stroke is bared by the rulers when the ball is thrown in. If the parties are weakly manned, the office of the thrower can be omitted, the first bat then gives himself the ball. "

Rules for "Schlagball (Deutschball)" can also be found in Hermann Wagner. In 1913 he brought out a playbook for boys. He emphasizes on the bat:

"Schlagball (German ball). The Schlagballspiel is the most beautiful of all German youth games; it should have been the German national game long ago. It requires a high degree of speed, agility and perseverance, courage and the keenest attention; on the one hand it demands the highest level of exertion of all energies, and on the other hand there is sufficient opportunity to rest; it is also preferable to many other games in health education. But it is also the most difficult of all games and is therefore best learned in stages. "

Mikhail Gorbachev writes in his memoirs that in the 1930s people played bat on Sundays.

In his novel Billard at 9:30, Heinrich Böll reports in detail on the batball game in a Cologne high school in the first half of the 20th century.

Baseball a kid of hit ball

It was European emigrants who brought the games with them from their homeland, from which the popular baseball game developed in North America in the mid-19th century. Paradoxically, it was American soldiers who, after the Second World War, brought baseball back to Germany as a kind of re-import and made the sport known primarily in southern Germany.

Game thought

The batball game is a game in which two parties of twelve or six players face each other. The fight is for the right to hit and the higher number of points after a fixed playing time. The strike party (according to GutsMuths the ruling party ) defends the right to strike and the field or catch party (according to GutsMuths the serving party ) tries to win it. The batting party with the alternating bat occupies the batting mark and tries to get their runs back and forth to the running mark with blows.

The field party (with the catchers) occupies the running field and the sloping space in any distribution. The catchers try to catch or pick up the beaten balls, to circle the running clubs by passing them and to throw them or to hit them, to drive them over the boundaries of the running field or to throw the ball back into the stroke in order to prevent the opponent from gaining further points.

If the field party is successful and with each change point, the field party receives the right to strike and becomes the new party to strike. In connection with the change of mark to the strike mark, the players of the new strike party can immediately be thrown off by the new catch party.


The play equipment is a leather ball, the hit ball . The weight of the ball before the game should be at least 70 g, at most 85 g, the circumference 19 cm to 21 cm. The leather should not have a light color because of the glare in the sunshine. The rule ball should be red, but any color is allowed with the consent of both teams.

The bat , also known as the cliff, may be of unlimited length; it must be made of uniform natural wood and circular in cross-section and may be up to 3 cm thick at the lower end. The handle end and the shaft of the wood may be thinner and provided with a hand loop or end knob. The end of the stroke must not be artificially weighted. Wrapping wire, leather and the like is prohibited. Each player can use his own bat. All devices brought into the game are common property.

The tick bars are stuck in the ground 10 m from the end of the field at a distance of 4 m.


The rectangular playing field is 70 m × 25 m with an adjoining long distance field, which results from an extension of the diagonals through the playing field. The baseline is the stroke mark, the opposite line is the catch mark. There are two tick poles 4 m apart 10 m in front of the catch. Running marks are the tick bars. Behind the playing field, the long hitting field follows in an extension of the diagonal of the playing field.

In Gutsmuth's rules of the game, the catch mark is the goal of the run, in the newer rules of the game it is only the tick bars.

Course of the game

A game lasts an hour, there is no break.

Batting team

The players on the batting team put the ball into play in the order of their numbers by throwing it to themselves and trying to hit it with the bat. If this succeeds, the player concerned has the right to run. However, you may only run if the ball has been validly brought into play; that is, when the ball has been struck into the playing field or beyond into the long-range field.

If the ball hits the ground again outside this area or if it rolls out of bounds after touching the ground in the front half of the playing field, it is "dead" and it is not allowed to walk. However, if it is validly brought into play, all players on the batting team who have acquired the right to run may run. The aim of running is to run across the field to one of the tick bars and back to the marker. There is no need to go back and forth all at once; you can spread them over several strokes. After the run, the player receives the right to hit again.

Field team

The field team tries to catch the struck ball or pick it up from the ground and thus throw off a runner from the batting team. A player cannot be thrown off in the stroke mark, on the baseline and on the tick bars.


If the drop succeeds, a change takes place immediately. This means that the previous batting team immediately becomes the new field team and vice versa. While the new field team is now spread out across the field, the players of the new batting team must rush to the bar or to the tick bars as quickly as possible, otherwise they can be thrown off immediately, which would result in another change.

Change conditions
If a field player's ball hits a player on the batting team, a change is made immediately. If a player of the batting team leaves the field of play while running, this will be punished with a penalty change.

Points rules

Individual points are awarded for certain services. There are five different ways to get points, these are equivalent and are added to the total of points.

Running point
If a player in the batting team manages to run to one of the tick bars and back to the marker after acquiring the right to run without a change in the meantime, the batting team receives a running point.

Long hitting point
If a player hits the ball over the field of play into the long hitting area behind, i.e. further than 70 meters, the batting team receives a long hitting point.

Change point
If a runner is thrown by a player of the field team, the field team receives a change point. If the field party forces a change of the right to hit by pushing a runner of the batting team out of the field, it receives no change point.

Catch point
If the struck ball is
caught by a player of the field team directly from the air, with one hand and without reaching out, the field team receives a catch point. Catch points are also made by catching the ball if the batting team has taken an invalid stroke.

Penalty change point
If the referee imposes a penalty change (e.g. because of unsportsmanlike conduct or because of endangering an opponent if he loses the bat in the stroke), the new batting team receives one point.


Batting is an old sport that has been a common team sport since the beginnings of the German gymnastics and sports movement in the 19th century and which enjoyed great popularity in Germany long after the Second World War. Up until the 1950s, Schlagball was played as a gymnastics game in the German Gymnastics Federation , after which it was taught in physical education in schools for a few years. The last official German championship was won by TV Arbergen from Bremen in 1954 . What was left of the once very widespread competition in organized sport is the throwing ball in children's athletics and national youth games .

Bat today

Today Schlagball is rarely seen, but is used in Kiel ( Kieler Keulen ), Cologne ( Hickory Köln 08 ), Berlin ( catch and drop ) Hamburg ( Likedeeler ), Mülheim an der Ruhr , Fürstenau , Osnabrück and on the islands Langeoog and Spiekeroog operated regularly. A specialist produces batons on the island of Langeoog. In workshops, active people come together on this island to exchange experiences about batons.

Island competition Langeoog - Spiekeroog

During the summer holidays, teams from the two islands alternate between teams on the islands of Langeoog and Spiekeroog , in even years on Spiekeroog and in odd years on Langeoog. While Langeoog used to dominate, Spiekeroog has had the upper hand for several years. In 2015, Spiekeroog won the trophies in the 69th tournament with victories for the women’s and men’s team, but the Langeoog mixed youth team won their game and is rated as strong by the Spiekerooger Inselbote and must be expected in the future. In 2015, the Spiekeroog teams were coached by Thore Gäbel (youth), Philipp Osburg (men) and Eike Frank (women). In the 70th year the competition for 2016 is set to July 28th on Spiekeroog, the 71st for 2017 on August 1st, 2017 on Langeoog.

Other competitions

In Kiel there are tournaments twice a year for which all teams can register. During the Kiel Week in 2016, an international batball tournament will take place on June 18, 2016, in which teams from Poland and Romania have already registered their participation by the end of 2015. The Hermann Lietz School Spiekeroog holds a tournament every year on Ascension Day, to which teams with young players are particularly invited. On the Ascension weekend in 2016, eleven teams took part in the tournament: one school team each from Fürstenau and Hamburg-Winterhude as well as teams from Cologne, from Mülheim (1st place), two teams made up of guests from Spiekeroog (one of them 2nd place), one from Langeoog- Guests, the Hamburg pirates and a mixed Kiel-Berlin team. The district youth fire brigade of the Diepholz district holds a ball tournament in their tent camp every year. The village youth Luttum organizes a traditional batball game every year.

Batter in Poland

In Janowitz (Cyprzanów) in Upper Silesia, which has been in Poland since 1945, the game that was once widespread in the region and was founded by the Janowitz game club is still firmly anchored today. You see yourself as a quasi national team of Poland. Janowitz is a district of Groß Peterwitz . The Polish teams have already taken part in competitions in Germany, including 2011 in Berlin.

Batter in Romania

At the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, batball was also played in Romania. Romanian teams took part in tournaments in Berlin and Poland; for 2016 they registered for the tournament in Kiel on June 18.

See also


  • Oldest published rules for “Das deutsche Ballspiel” from 1796: Johann Christoph Friedrich Guthsmuths: Games for exercise and relaxation of the body and mind, for the youth, their educators and all friends of innocent youthful joys. Verlag der Buchhandlung der Erziehungsanstalt, Schnepfenthal 1796, p. 57 ff. (Digitized version ) , also to be found here
  • Hermann Wagner: Illustrated playbook for boys: A collection of movement games and physical exercises, physical and chemical tricks, entertaining manual skills, mind games and mental exercises. Springer-Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg 1913, p. 28 ff.,
  • Hermann Hoser: The German batball game. (= Miniature library for sports and games). Verlag Grethlein & Co. and Gustav Altenburg Verlag, Leipzig / Zurich undated (around 1920), with 33 illustrations, 72 pp.
  • Alfred Gröger: Schlagball with preparations . Verlag Quelle and Meyer, Leipzig 1927, 54 pp.
  • The latest official rules of the game for Schlagball , edition 1934/1936, standard rules for the following bodies: Universities and regional gymnasiums of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Württemberg and Baden. German University for Physical Education, German Philologists Association, German Gymnastics Association, German Gymnastics Teachers Association, Hitler Sports Youth Associations, Paul Mähler and Gut Heil Verlag Stuttgart, no year, 16 pp.
  • Batball game . Series of official rules for gymnastics games, No. 3, published by the German Gymnastics Federation. Wilhelm Limpert Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1957, 24 pp.
  • Otto Trebing: Schlagball, Handball, Fußball , No. 4 of the series Suggestions for gymnastics under simple circumstances, Dürr'sche Buchhandlung, Leipzig undated (1939), Schlagball p. 5 to p. 16, 4 illustrations.
  • Manfred Schimmler: Batting in training and in school lessons. (PDF)

Web links

Commons : Schlagball  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Eduard Drexl: Playbook for boys and girls. Habbel-Verlag, Regensburg 1914, pp. 86-89 Digitized version of the table of contents
  2. ^ A b Hermann Wagner: Illustrated playbook for boys. A collection of movement games and physical exercises, physical and chemical tricks, entertaining manual skills, mind games and mental exercises. Springer-Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg 1913, pp. 28–32. (Digitized version)
  3. a b c d Johann Christoph Friedrich Guthsmuths: Games for exercise and relaxation of the body and mind, for young people, their educators and all friends of innocent youthful joys. published by Verlag der Buchhandlung der Erziehungsanstalt, Schnepfenthal 1796, p. 57 ff. ( digitized version , accessed on August 21, 2015)
  4. Gutsmuths' text in an excerpt.
  5. ^ Joachim-Heinrich von Campe: Dictionary of the German language. Volume 4 S to T, in the school bookshop, Braunschweig 1810, p. 157
  6. James Wardrop, John Scott: On the aneurysms and a new method of healing them. In: Surgical reference library. Volume 11, Verlag des Großh. S. p. Verlags-Comptoirs, Weimar 1829, p. 23
  7. quoted from Paul Hildebrandt: The game in the life of the child. Berlin 1905, p. 213. (
  8. bat . In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition. Volume 6, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1906, p.  823 .
  9. Michael S. Gorbachev: Everything in its time. My life. Hoffmann and Campe Verlag, Hamburg. ( Digitized version , accessed on August 21, 2015)
  10. Rules of the game today
  11. A club with two special features. On:, 23 August 2011, accessed on 4 November 2011.
  12. Homepage of Hickory Cologne 08 ( Memento of the original from October 1, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed on August 21, 2015. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. ^ Website of the Schlagball Berlin e. V. Catch and drop , accessed on August 21, 2015.
  14. A few young people want to re-establish the sport of batball in Berlin: rackets and catchers in the park. In: Berliner Zeitung. December 1, 2010, accessed August 21, 2015.
  15. Website of Likedeeler , accessed on August 21, 2015.
  16. ^ Website of the Hermann-Lietz-Schule Spiekeroog , accessed on August 21, 2015.
  17. ^ Website of the Hermann-Lietz-Schule Spiekeroog , accessed on August 21, 2015.
  18. Langeoognews website , accessed on January 22, 2016.
  19. ^ Website of the Hermann-Lietz-Schule Spiekeroog , accessed on August 21, 2015.
  20. Spiekerooger Inselbote , No. 16 of August 15, 2015, pp. 1 and 19.
  21. website , accessed on August 21, 2015.
  22. Website of the island Spiekeroog
  23. website , accessed on August 21, 2015.
  24. a b , accessed December 26, 2015
  25. ^ Website of the Hermann-Lietz-Schule Spiekeroog , accessed on August 21, 2015.
  26. Schlesien-Journal of July 17, 2012
  27. Schlesien-Journal of August 26, 2011
  28. ↑ The website of Fang und Abwurf Berlin , accessed on August 21, 2015.