|Molecular formula||SOCl 2|
colorless, highly refractive, smelling liquid
|External identifiers / databases|
|Molar mass||118.97 g · mol -1|
1.638 g cm −3 (20 ° C)
−104.5 ° C
76 ° C
partly violent decomposition with water and alcohols
1.518 (20 ° C)
Switzerland: 1 ml m −3 or 5 mg m −3
|As far as possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions . Refractive index: Na-D line , 20 ° C|
Thionyl chloride was first obtained in 1849 by reacting sulfur dioxide with phosphorus pentachloride . After its suitability as a chlorinating reagent was recognized, it was manufactured and used on an industrial scale from around 1900.
Thionyl chloride is a colorless to yellowish liquid that smokes in the air and decomposes in water or when heated or when exposed to light. Their vapors have a suffocating effect even at great dilution. The compound reacts violently with water and bases, as well as with some alcohols . When heated above 80 ° C it breaks down into sulfur dioxide , chlorine and disulphur dichloride , according to the equation:
When reacting with water, hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide are formed:
- Thionyl chloride is used industrially to produce the following substances:
- entry on thionyl chloride. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on May 2, 2014.
- Data sheet Thionyl chloride from Sigma-Aldrich , accessed on October 3, 2016 ( PDF ).
- Entry on Thionyl dichloride in the Classification and Labeling Inventory of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), accessed on February 1, 2016. Manufacturers or distributors can expand the harmonized classification and labeling .
- Swiss Accident Insurance Fund (Suva): Limits - Current MAK and BAT values (search for 7719-09-7 or thionyl chloride ), accessed on November 2, 2015.
- M. Persoz: In: Compt. Rend. 28, 1849, pp. 86-88.
- P. Kremers: In: Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. 70, 1848, pp. 297-300.
- H.-D. Lauss, W. Steffens: Sulfur Halides. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Technical Chemistry . Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim 2012, doi : 10.1002 / 14356007.a25_623 .
- Thionyl chloride (7719-09-7) , University of Münster, accessed on November 4, 2014.
- G. Brauer (Ed.): Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry. 2nd Edition. vol. 1, Academic Press, 1963, pp. 382-383.