Video evidence

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The video evidence is the use of a video recording to make a factual decision by an arbitrator .

American football

The most extensive use of camera images as video evidence is in the National Football League (NFL). There are some decisions that can referee the head coach one of the teams appealed ( challenged are). Almost always only clear decisions such as the position of the ball can be checked, but mostly no interpretation decisions. Each head coach can make use of this right twice per game, but only if he still has a time-out and not in the last two minutes of a half, then it is up to the referees to check a game situation. If the right to attack changes in the course of a play, or in the case of moves that lead to points, referees must check this with the video evidence even without a prior challenge. The main referee goes to a special video booth, where he reviews his decision with the help of the available television images. If the decision remains ( the ruling on the field stands or the ruling on the field is confirmed ), a time-out will be deducted from the team that challenged it . However, clear and unambiguous visual evidence must be available for the decision to be revised. If a team is twice wrong with its challenge , it will receive a third and final challenge .


Video evidence is also permitted in the American basketball league NBA . In the beginning, video recordings were only used to determine whether the ball left the thrower's hand at the end of the 24-second clock or game time. In the meantime, video evidence is also used to decide on unsportsmanlike conduct and fouls. The referees can also determine whether the player was behind the 3-point line during a throw. In the event of a foul, the number of free throws can be decided with the help of video evidence. Furthermore, if the game clock is not stopped immediately in the event of a foul or the like, a decision can be made as to how much game time is left.

The basketball association FIBA announced on April 6, 2006 that video evidence can be used at FIBA ​​tournaments to decide whether a buzzer beater has occurred within the playing time. The video evidence was first used at the 2010 Basketball World Cup .

Instant Replay was introduced in the German basketball league BBL for the 2014/15 season. The referees can check the following situations using iPads at the referee's table: whether a throw counts one, two or three points, whether the game clock or 24-second clock has expired before a throw attempt or has been correctly operated by the timekeeper, which players / coaches / supervisors are involved "Pack formation" were involved or to identify the right free thrower. For the 2015/16 season, the correct type of foul was checked (personal / unsporting / disqualifying). For the 2017/18 season, it is also possible to check which player caused a ball out.


At high-class international cricket games , i. H. Test Matches and One-Day Internationals , the video evidence is used both within the Decision Review System and the Third Umpire TV Replay System . In addition to the video image, other technical systems are used to make decisions. These are primarily hawk-eye and so-called hot-spot cameras, which record video images in the infrared range.

ice Hockey

In ice hockey , television recordings are internationally approved as video evidence by the International Ice Hockey Federation . An additional video assistant with an independent monitor can support the main referee on request .

It can be clarified whether the puck has crossed the goal line and whether this happened in accordance with the rules . In addition, the actual playing time can be determined via the monitor of the video assistant, independently of the official scoreboard and the clock during the timekeeping. In addition to international events such as the ice hockey tournament at the Olympic Winter Games or the ice hockey A World Championship , this rule is also used in some leagues. There is also a special camera above the gate.

In the North American ice hockey league NHL , video recordings are evaluated by a video assistant based in the NHL headquarters in Toronto . If video evidence is required, the referee can call the video assistant, who is then allowed to use all available camera perspectives to make a decision that he has to communicate to the referee by telephone within a few minutes.



In handball, video evidence was introduced for the 2015 Men's World Cup .



In tennis, methods such as the MacCAM , Auto-Ref or the Hawk-Eye are used as video evidence.

Table tennis

In December 2019, video evidence in table tennis - called Table Tennis Review (TTR) - was first used at the ITTF World Tour Grand Finals . This can be used, for example, to check whether a service was performed correctly, whether a net was served or whether a ball touched the edge of the table.

Volleyball / beach volleyball

Since 2013, video evidence has been used in some international tournaments of the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball to a. to decide whether a ball was in the field or not, whether there was a block or net contact. At the 2016 Summer Olympics , the so-called challenge was first used in an Olympic volleyball tournament . The teams have the opportunity to request video evidence per set until it is unsuccessful twice. To request video evidence, fingers must form a “C”. The same rules apply to beach volleyball .

Web links

Wiktionary: video evidence  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Archive link ( Memento from August 21, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  2. easyCredit - Beko BBL representatives decide to introduce instant replay and video evidence. Retrieved August 19, 2017 .
  3. Beko BBL standards 2015-2016. Retrieved August 19, 2017 .
  4. easyCredit BBL - Standards 2017-18. Retrieved August 19, 2017 .
  5. ^ ICC Standard Test Match Playing Conditions ( Memento from January 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ); P. 32 ff. And 43 ff.
  6. IIHF Rulebook 2010–2014 Section 1–4: Rule 330 “Video Goal Youth System” and IIHF Sport Regulations, sub-section “Video Goal Youth System Operation Procedures” , accessed on December 4, 2010 (English).
  7. Surprised by the revolution., January 18, 2015.
  8. Jan Lüke: Successful evidence in: Zeitschrift tischtennis , 2020/1 page 15
  9. ^ World League - FIVB increases spectator experience with new Challenge System. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  10. ^ The Volleyball Challenge System Debuts In Rio. In: , accessed September 5, 2016.
  11. FIVB Challenge System Guidelines 2016