Residential stable house
A stable house is a building that combines at least the two functions of living and stable , but can also accommodate other functions such as a threshing floor , barn or mountain room. As a rule, this is a farmhouse in which the farmer lives under one roof with his family and cattle. A farm in which all functions are united under one and the same roof that forms a constructive unit is also called a single house .
In its simplest form, the stable house is organized on the same level. Vertical separation offers further options, for example in such a way that the living rooms are above the stable rooms.
This type of living seems to have been widespread among farmers in Europe in the past. Perhaps one of the reasons for living under one roof with the cattle was to use them as an additional source of heat. This happened despite the annoyance, for example due to the smell.
It is also conceivable, at least in more northern latitudes, that the cattle were easier to reach and control in winter. The work with the cattle could also be done in the evening thanks to the light source of the hearth fire without having to leave the house.
Since the Iron Age , a long house with a living area and adjoining cattle stalls, developed from the residential stables of the Bronze Age, spread across the North German Plain . The buildings became longer and longer due to the increasing numbers of livestock. Such Iron Age longhouses were first excavated in large numbers on the Wurt Feddersen Wierde near Bremerhaven . In the meantime, this type of house can be proven from Holland to Sydjylland (for construction see post house )
The Hallenhaus , popularly known as the Lower Saxony House , developed from him . This is widespread in the north German lowlands from the Netherlands to the Danzig Bay and with the southern borderline of the low mountain range.
To the south is the Ernhaus , which also occurs as a residential stable house and spread in many subspecies from the Rhine to beyond the Vistula. However, early on there were also variants of this type with a separation of the function, so that with these types of construction the stable and the barn were outsourced as separate buildings or were never part of the residential building.
The Black Forest house is probably a more modern development of a stable house, whereby the functions (especially on slopes) are also distributed over two floors. The Haubarg in North Friesland is also a modern development from the early modern period from the East Frisian Gulfhaus .
Since the 15./16. Century especially in the Engadine resulting Engadine house is a typical byre-dwelling. It is a massive stone building, usually with a wooden core, which consists of a living and working part one behind the other under a single wide gable roof. The residential and commercial sections extend over three floors with a gate each for the basement and ground floor. In the basement is the stable yard (Cuort) as access to the stable and cellar rooms. In the front part of the ground floor there is the anteroom (Sulèr, Pietan) to the living area, living room, kitchen, pantry and in the rear part the barn for the hay. With the hay cart (tragliun) you can only get into the barn through the upper gate and the Sulèr. The bedrooms are on the upper floor (Palatschin). In the living room is the only stove that is used to heat the living area from the kitchen. While the division of the rooms and the positions of the windows and bay windows (view of the fountain square) obey mainly practical aspects, the facades of the Engadine houses were often richly decorated with paintings and sgraffiti .
For centuries, the Engadine houses have determined the appearance of the Engadine villages Ardez , Guarda , Zuoz , La Punt etc., where they are grouped around a common well and form a village quarter as a Romanesque cooperative village and economic organization.
In England there was also a very similar type of house, remains of which have been preserved in the south-west. For example in the longhouse versions of Dartmoor in Cornwall or in Wales . In Ireland there are similar byre-dwellings , but here the fire seems to have leaned against a gable wall. In the northwestern England this type is in the landscape Cumbria also described.
The old “high-rise buildings” in south and south-west Arabia also belong to the vertically organized group. The best-known examples are in the Yemeni cities of Sana'a and Shibam . Other buildings can still be found in the Saudi Asir and at least in historical times in the entire Hejaz .
The different forms of courtyard houses with their respective variants that are widespread all over the world are probably not included, as both functions are not located there under the same roof structure, but often constructively largely independent units that only use the same outer wall that encompasses the entire property (e.g. . Atrium house , patio house and others).
Stilt houses are widespread in East Asia . Many of these house types traditionally keep pets between the stilts under the houses. Even if these became more and more solid components, these stables are usually regarded as extensions and the houses are therefore not referred to as residential stalls.
- Albrecht Bedal (Ed.): Old buildings, new knowledge. Two open-air museums and their heritage in the 21st century. Schwäbisch Hall 2012.
- Traditional rural designs in Ireland with floor plans (English)
- Mention of longhouses in Cumbria with a floor plan (English) ( Memento from June 17, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- Architecture, Modernity, and Preservation: The Tower House of Sana'a, Yemen, By Richard Brooks Jeffery; Sixth section.