Parts of the masonry of the main castle
|Alternative name (s):||Hohenwaldsburg, Obere Walsburg, Old Castle, Hunnenburg|
|Creation time :||1000 to 1100|
|Castle type :||Hilltop castle|
|Conservation status:||Wall remains|
|Standing position :||Nobles|
The ruins of the hilltop castle are located 1.8 kilometers north of the district Weisbach and 1.2 kilometers east of Neuenbeuthen on a north-facing high mountain spur of the castle dome and was built around the turn of the 13th to the 14th century. It is divided into an outer and main castle .
According to new historical findings, it is probably not a robber knight's castle , as is sometimes assumed . Rather, it was created at the end of the 13th century on behalf of the bailiffs of Gera . Around the middle of the 13th century, they took over the rule of Weisbach from the lords of Lobdeburg zu Saalburg, who had died out . Because the small hilltop castle of the Lobdeburgers on the south-eastern outskirts no longer seemed sufficient as a border fortress against the Schwarzburger , the bailiffs built a new hilltop castle on the hilltop two kilometers away in the last decades before 1300.
In the years from 1354 to 1359 the Wettins focused their interest on the estates of the bailiffs of Weida, Gera and Plauen and acquired them during the Vogtland War . Her ally was Emperor Karl IV , who received the castle and town of Plauen as spoils of war . The emperor (and Bohemian king) called on the imperial cities of Erfurt, Mühlhausen and Nordhausen to support Margrave Friedrich II the strictness of Meissen, ostensibly because the bailiffs tolerated robber barons. Whether this was true or a pretext has not been established. Under the leadership of Heinrich V von Honstein zu Sondershausen, a contingent of the towns moved against Elsterberg Castle and destroyed it in October 1354. In the same year Charles IV let a Bohemian army invade the possessions of the Plauen bailiffs. The Vogtslinien lost their imperial immediacy in the course of the war , most of their possessions fell to the Wettins, whose vassals they had to become.
A temporal reference to the events around Elsterberg Castle cannot be documented, but it seems plausible, since the route of the city contingent coming from the northwest led via Rudolstadt and Saalfeld through the possessions of the bailiffs of Gera. A destruction of the Wysburg on the way in autumn 1354 can therefore be assumed to be very likely. Around 60 castles are said to have been destroyed in the course of the war. The ceramic finds (see below, museum) date from the end of the 13th to the third quarter of the 14th century. The short period of use of the castle, which is reflected in the finds, also confirms the results of the evaluation of the building findings.
At a distance of about 300 meters west of the castle on the Neuenbeuthener Höhe opposite, a large slingshot ( blide ) was set up. The projectiles hurled over the valley of the Umschützbach from there were brought from the Orlatal about 20 kilometers away and consisted of Zechsteindolomite . They weighed up to 81 kilograms. The castle was razed after the capture .
After the castle fell into disrepair, the area served the residents of the surrounding villages as a quarry, which meant that the ruins lost much of their substance: the masonry was hardly visible above ground.
Various surveying work and small-scale excavations were carried out in the first third of the 20th century. In 1985, the then Museum for Prehistory and Early History of Thuringia carried out the first scientifically sound excavations under the direction of Hubert Roßbach (current district monument conservationist). The walls were gradually rebuilt up to a certain height and the original height was marked by red bricks. The farm buildings have been the leisure Placed Vorburg with oven, outside walls, keep , Palas , residential tower , wall-trench system, door system and cistern system . The rock basin holds about 350,000 liters of water and has a diameter of 7.50 meters and a depth of 8 meters.
In 1989, a permanent exhibition was opened in Weisbach in the Wysburg House . The finds recovered during the archaeological excavations are shown (ceramic vessels and iron utensils). The original appearance of the castle is explained using maps and models.
- That was the result of the analysis of the archaeological investigations. (see Christian Tannhäuser, Die Wysburg - a small castle on the upper reaches of the Saale in Thuringia , razed during the Vogtland War , in: Castles and Palaces. Journal for Castle Research and Monument Preservation. Published by the German Castle Association , issue 4/2016, pages 226–232)
- Christian Tannhäuser, Die Wysburg - a small castle on the upper reaches of the Saale in Thuringia , razed during the Vogtland War , in: Castles and Palaces. Journal for Castle Research and Monument Preservation. Published by the German Castle Association , issue 4/2016, pages 226–232.
- Thomas Bienert: "Eßbach, OT Weisbach - Wysburg ruins" - Medieval castles in Thuringia . Wartberg Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2000, ISBN 3-86134-631-1 , p. 213-214 .
- Michael Köhler: "Wysburg" - Thuringian castles and fortified prehistoric and early historical living spaces . Jenzig-Verlag, Jena 2001, ISBN 3-910141-43-9 , p. 278 .
- Alfred Auerbach: The prehistoric and early historical antiquities of East Thuringia . G. Fischer, Jena 1930.
- Hubert Roßbach: Results of previous investigations on the Wysburg near Weisbach, Saale-Orla district . In: Excavations and finds in the Free State of Thuringia 5, 2000, , pp. 24–30.
- Christian Tannhäuser, Hubert Roßbach: The Wysburg near Weisbach in the Thuringian Slate Mountains. Archaeological Monuments in Thuringia, Volume 4 . Beier & Beran, Langenweißbach 2018, ISBN 978-3-95741-082-5 .