Zoophilia (botany)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

As zoophilia (from ancient Greek ζώον zṓon , German 'animal, living being' and -philia ; not to be confused with the human paraphilia of the same name ) or zoogamy ( γάμος gámos , German 'wedding' ) is a characteristic syndrome in plants in botany that is associated with is accompanied by biotic pollination by animals ("animal bloom"), d. H. in general the adaptations of plants to all cases of biotic pollination, acquired through coevolution .

The opposite is a trait syndrome that develops in plants with abiotic pollination , such as anemophilia (pollination by wind) or hydrophilicity (pollination by water).

Hummingbirds feed on nectar and small insects that they find in flowers. Hummingbirds can pollinate flowers while foraging

Zoophilic plant species often have some of the characteristics that are typical of zoophilia:

  • staminocarpellate (= hermaphrodite ) flowers (stamens and carpels in the same flower)
  • striking colors, smells or structures for the pollinators. for example:
  • Resources usable by the pollinator, for example:
    • Pollen
    • nectar
    • Fatty oils
    • Resins
    • Scented oils
    • Sleeping places

In zoophilia, pollen is transported by animals. When visiting flowers, pollen is attached to the pollinator, often through sticky pollen tags or a textured outer layer, and then transferred to the stigma of a flower . With the transfer of the pollen to the stigma (in the case of naked samers on the pollination droplets) pollination is complete.

The stapelia -Art Stapelia gigantea with typical features one of blowflies pollinated plant: aasartiges appearance with hair like an animal carcass, penetrating odor of decay

Transport partners for zoophilic plants are:

The pollination of the snail carried pollen (Malakophilie) has been described several times (for example, aspidistra ), but is controversial (Daumann 1963).

Zoogamy is not to be confused with zoidiogamy , with which fertilization by flagellated sperm cells is meant.

If an animal species only uses one plant source (genus or family) it is referred to as oligo- or monolectic , if several sources are used then polylectic .

If a plant is mainly pollinated by one species it is called monophilic , if it is pollinated by several species it is polyphilic , or if it is pollinated by some related taxa it is called oligophilic .


  • E. Daumann: On the question of the origin of hydrogamy. At the same time a contribution to the flower ecology of Potamogeton. In: Preslia. 35, 1963, pp. 23-30.
  • T. Niet, SD van der Johnson: Phylogenetic evidence for pollinator-driven diversification of angiosperms. In: Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 27, 2012, pp. 353-361, doi: 10.1016 / j.tree.2012.02.002 .

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Theodor CH Cole: Dictionary of Biology. 4th edition, Springer, 2015, ISBN 978-3-642-55327-1 .
  2. James D. Blande, Robert Glinwood: Deciphering Chemical Language of Plant Communication. Springer 2016, ISBN 978-3-319-33496-7 , p. 237.
  3. WT Vos, TJ Edwards, J. van Staden: Pollination biology of annual and perennial Leonotis species (Lamiaceae). In: Plant Systematics and Evolution. Volume 192, Issue 1-2, 1994, pp. 1-9, doi : 10.1007 / BF00985903 .
  4. Illustrated Flora of East Texas. Volume 1, In: Sida, Botanical Miscellany. 26, Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 2006, ISBN 978-1-889878-12-6 , pp. 1377.
  5. Joachim W. Kadereit, K. Kubitzki: The Families and Generas of Vascular Plants. Vol.VII: Flowering Plants - Dicotyledons , Springer, 2004, ISBN 978-3-642-62200-7 , p. 82.
  6. Theodor CH Cole: Dictionary of Biology. 4th edition, Springer, 2015, ISBN 978-3-642-55327-1 , p. 138.
  7. Michael G. Simpson: Plant Systemetics. Academic Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-12-644460-5 , p. 468.
  8. a b R. P. Kapil: Pollination Biology: An Analysis. Inter-India Publications, 1986, ISBN 978-81-210-0048-2 , p. 175.
  9. a b c d Dharam P. Abrol: Pollination Biology. Springer, 2012, ISBN 978-94-007-1941-5 , p. 291.
  10. ^ A b Edward M. Barrows: Animal Behavior Desk Reference. Third Edition, CRC Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4398-3652-1 , p. 472.