Arable crops

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Arable crops
Early Ackerling (Agrocybe praecox)

Early Ackerling ( Agrocybe praecox )

Subdivision : Agaricomycotina
Class : Agaricomycetes
Subclass : Agaricomycetidae
Order : Mushroom-like (Agaricales)
Family : Trussling relatives (Strophariaceae)
Genre : Arable crops
Scientific name

The arable crops ( Agrocybe ), sometimes also called Erdschüpplinge , are a genus of the family relatives (Strophariaceae). They are mushrooms with small to medium-sized, fleshy fruiting bodies . They feature convex hats, wide slats, and pale stems. The genus includes around 50 species, all of which feed on dead plant tissue as saprobionts . The fruiting bodies are therefore mostly found in the fields, meadows, parking areas, compost heaps or, more rarely, on dead wood. The genus is distributed all over the world.

The type species is the early fieldling ( Agrocybe praecox ).


Macroscopic features

The fruiting bodies of arable crops are small or medium-sized, stalked mushrooms with at least initially domed hats and lamellae. The surface of the hat is dry, matt to slightly sticky. The mostly wide lamellae are bulged or just attached to the stem. The stalk is pale or whitish in young fruiting bodies. With age it usually turns dark from the base upwards. Occasionally it has root-like rhizoids at the base ; a species, the sclerotia or tailed Ackerling ( A. arvalis ), forms sclerotia . Some species have a velum partiale , which later remains as a ring on the stem; however, none of the species has a volva . The spore print of the crops is gray-brown, dark purple-brown or tobacco-colored.

Microscopic features

The cap skin of the arable crops consists of pear-shaped or spherical cells. The hyphae usually have buckles , the trama of the lamellae has a regular structure. All species have cheilo- and almost always pleurocystidia as well . Their spores are elliptical or egg-shaped, have a smooth surface and a germ pore of different sizes.

Ecology and occurrence

Farmlings are saprobionts and feed on dead plant tissue. Most species break down the components of dead grass and can therefore be found on lawns, meadows or stubble fields. The genus is distributed worldwide with the exception of the Arctic.


The arable crops comprise around 50 species. 25 species occur in Europe or are to be expected there.

Farmlings ( Agrocybe ) in Europe
German name Scientific name Author quote
Sclerotia or tailed fieldling Agrocybe arvalis (Fries 1821: Fries 1821) Singer 1936
Sticky arable Agrocybe attenuata (Kühner 1953) PD Orton 1960
Coal arable Agrocybe carbonicola Migliozzi & Coccia 1993
Small spore reed arable Agrocybe carolae Arras, Brotzu, Contu & Piga 1998
Agrocybe cyanescens Contu 1998
White or cracked arable crops Agrocybe dura (Bolton 1788: Frieze 1821) Singer 1936
Marsh meadow arable Agrocybe elatella (P. Karsten 1883) Vesterholt 1989
Mealy smelling arable Agrocybe farinacea Hongo 1957
Velvety arable Agrocybe company (Peck 1902) Singer 1940
Agrocybe metuloidiphora
(described as " metuloidaephora ")
Ballero, Contu & Martis 1991
Agrocybe ochracea Nauta 2004
Rough-stalked or hemispherical arable Agrocybe pediades (Fries 1821: Fries 1821) Fayod 1889
Early or leading arable Agrocybe praecox (Persoon 1801: Frieze 1821) Fayod 1889
Tiny field Agrocybe pusiola (Fries 1828) R. Heim 1934
Falber farmling Agrocybe putaminum (May 1913) Singer 1936
Wrinkled farmling Agrocybe rivulosa Nauta 2003
Hairy arable Agrocybe setulosa G. Moreno & Barrasa 1984
Agrocybe smithii Watling & HE Bigelow 1983
Shiny arable Agrocybe splendida Clémençon 1977
Orange-sliced ​​arable Agrocybe splendidoides Migliozzi & Coccia 1993
Tobacco-brown arable Agrocybe tabacina (De Candolle 1815) Konrad & Maublanc 1949
Hollow-handled arable Agrocybe vervacti (Fries 1821: Fries 1821) Singer 1936
Grained arable Agrocybe xanthocystis Bon & Jamoni in Jamoni 1993


Some species of the genus with a reduced germ pore were separated and placed in the genus Cyclocybe , including the southern and liver-brown arable .



Individual evidence

  1. ^ Victor Fayod: Prodrome d'une histoire naturelle des Agaricinés . In: Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Botanique . 7e Série, Vol. 9, 1889, ZDB -ID 562-9 , p. 181-411 .
  2. Eric Strittmatter: The genus "Agrocybe". In: July 7, 2008, accessed July 30, 2012 .
  3. Nicolás Niveiro, Marina Uhart, Edgardo Albertó: Revision of the genera Agrocybe and Cyclocybe (Strophariaceae, Agaricales, Basidiomycota) in Argentina . In: Rodriguésia . tape 71 , 2020, ISSN  2175-7860 , p. e02272018 , doi : 10.1590 / 2175-7860202071038 ( [accessed on May 28, 2020]).

Web links

Commons : Ackerlinge ( Agrocybe )  - Collection of images, videos and audio files