Bergisch dialects represent a dialect group within the Rhine-Maasland dialect association, which are spoken in the Bergisches Land and which mark the easternmost border area of the Limburg (southern Lower Franconian) language area.
Bergisch dialects in the narrower sense
In a narrower sense, Bergisch refers to the Limburg dialects between the Uerdinger and Benrath lines : dialects such as those in the Mettmann district (e.g. the Velberter Platt ), in the Düsseldorf area , in Solingen , Mülheim an der Ruhr , Oberhausen , Wuppertal (including Barmen and Elberfeld ) or Remscheid (“berjisch platt”). These form a clearly definable dialect group.
Excerpt from: Georg Wenker (1852–1911): Das Rheinische Platt [2. Ed., 1877]
“We have already found 2 dialects, 1) the Lower Rhine from Uerdingen down the Rhine to the Dutch border, 2) the Westphalian, which occupies a long strip on the border of the province of Westphalia. What do we do with the area between the Uerdinger and Benrath lines? Is there a special dialect here? No! Instead, the Platt that is spoken here is a mixture of the dialects bordering north and south. Hence it is that in this entire area, i.e. in the districts of Geilenkirchen, Heinsberg, Erkelenz, Kempen, Gladbach, Crefeld and the northern half of the Neuss district, furthermore in the districts on the right bank of the Rhine, Düsseldorf, Mettmann and the northern half of Solingen and Lennep every second or third place the dialect sounds very noticeably changed. This is especially true of the left bank of the Rhine and the flat strip to the right of the Rhine near Düsseldorf, for the simple reason that in a very flat area the peoples could mix much more easily than in the mountains. That is why we can only draw some border lines with certainty in the mountains, in the so-called Bergisches Land. And for that we want to use the words Rhine and wine. In Düsseldorf, as is well known, they say rhing and wing, also in the surrounding area; but as soon as the mountains begin, east of Ratingen and Hilden, you hear Rhien, Wien or Rhinn, Winn, and that brings us to the Bergisch dialect. This is broken down into 4 sub-dialects: 1) the Solinger, 2) the Remscheider, 3) the Mettmanner, 4) the Wülfrather dialect. The Mettmanner and Solinger have Ehr, öch, ühr for high German you, you, yours, but the Wülfrather and Remscheider already gött and önk. The two northern ones, Mettmann and Wülfrath, use me and you instead of me and you, just as they say in Düsseldorf: I'll tell you that! or geff me dat! never: I'll tell you that! or: geff me dat! In the Solingen as in the Remscheid dialect, however, as in High German, it says: me and you when asked whom? and me and you to the question who? The Solinger has Winn, Rhinn, but the three other dialects are Vienna and Rhien. The four Bergisch dialects are most beautifully divided by the way in which they form diminutive words such as sticks, houses, trees, and benches. If one wants to examine the diminutive words, one must be careful of two things: 1) one must precisely separate the words that end in k, ch, g, ng from all others, these take on a different ending than the others; But that is only because one cannot easily say little books, handkerchiefs, little eyes and therefore one had to insert a letter to make things easier; 2) but one must pay attention to how the plural is formed when using the diminutive words. The following clear differences can be found in the diminutive words in the four Bergisch dialects:
|1)||The Mettmann dialect has, after words that end in k, g, ch, ng, the reducing syllables -sken and in the plural -skes, e.g. B. dat Bänksken, die Bänkskes (high German the Bänkchen, die Bänkchen), according to other words it reads -ken and -kes, thus dat Bömken, die Bömkes (little tree).|
|2)||The Solingen dialect has:
dat Bänksken but die Bänksker, i.e. with r in the majority not with s, also dat Bömken, the Bömker.
|3)||The Wülfrather dialect has everything just like the Mettmanner,|
|4)||the Remscheider has:
dat Bänkelschen, the Bänkelscher, so not sken but elschen, and in the majority r not s, furthermore dat Bömken, the Bömker like the Solinger.
But now it's time to say goodbye to the Bergisches Land [...] "
Bergisch dialects in the broader sense
In a broader sense, the Bergisch languages count in particular
- the north and east of the uerdingen line located ostbergischen dialects:
- the south of the Benrath Line located Middle Franconia , more Ripuarian , dialects:
- the Central Ripuarian dialects around Bergisch Gladbach and Leverkusen , in the past also large parts of the then Mülheim am Rhein district , which are extremely similar to Kölsch and are therefore also referred to together with others as Landkölsch , and
- the dialects, also known as Südbergisch or Ostrobothnian, from the area between today's Bergisch Gladbach and the Sieg or Rösrath to the east of Waldbröl and about Siegen .
The collective term "Bergisch" for these very different dialect groups assigned language varieties is not a linguistic classification. It is more derived from the political history of the county of Berg and the self-perception of the inhabitants of the Bergisches Land.
Linguistically, the Ostberg dialects are seen as a transition dialect to Westphalian . The Südbergischen varieties, on the other hand, belong to the Central German- speaking area, which in turn is part of High German .
The isoglosses that separate the various Bergisch dialects from each other are part of the so-called Rhenish fan . They are part of the continental-West Germanic dialect continuum , in which spatially neighboring dialects usually show only a few differences from one another, while the mutual intelligibility decreases with increasing distance.
The words of the Bergisch dialects are described in the Rhenish dictionary .
- Georg Wenker : The Rhineland Platt. 1877. (2nd edition, Düsseldorf 1877 - digitized at google , google , archive.org , archive.org , archive.org )
- Georg Wenker: The Rhineland Platt. Collection of German Dialect Geography Issue 8, Marburg, 1915.
- Georg Cornelissen , Peter Honnen , Fritz Langensiepen (eds.): Das Rheinische Platt. An inventory. Handbook of the Rhenish Dialects Part 1: Texts. Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne. 1989. ISBN 3-7927-0689-X
Individual dialects or individual places
- Julius Leithäuser: Dictionary of the Barmer dialects together with the outline of the linguistic theory. [Wuppertal-] Elberfeld, 1929.
- Julius Leithäuser: Supplements to the Barmer dictionary. Wuppertal-Elberfeld, 1936.
- Bruno Buchrücker: Dictionary of the Elberfeld dialect with an outline of the theory of forms and language samples. [Wuppertal-] Elberfeld, 1910.
- Erich Leihener: Cronenburger dictionary. German Dialect Geography, Volume 2, Marburg 1908
- Dr. Hermann Bredtmann: The Velbert dialect. A short outline of the theory of phonetics and forms together with a dictionary. Wuppertal-Elberfeld, 1938.
- Gustav Hermann Halbach: Bergischer Sprachschatz . Folklore Low German Remscheid dictionary. Printing and Publishing Dr. Orcar Born, Wuppertal-Barmen, Remscheid 1951 (= contributions to the history of Remscheid. Published on behalf of the City Director of the Cultural Office, 872 pages).
- August Diesdrichs: Contribution to a dictionary of the Remscheid dialect. Remscheid, 1910.
- FW Oligschläger: Dictionary of the Solingen vernacular.
- Rudolf Picard: Solingen vocabulary, dictionary and linguistic contributions to the Solingen dialect. 3rd, revised edition, Braun, Duisburg, 1992.
- Werner Heinrichs: Bergisch Platt - attempt to take stock. Self-published, Burscheid, 1978.