Fraternity of the Ostmark
The fraternity of the Ostmark (BdO) was 1907-1919 and 1933-1938 the corporation of the academic fraternities in Cisleithanien . It consisted of up to 46 member unions in Brno , Chernivtsi , Graz , Innsbruck , Prague , Tetschen and Vienna .
Fraternities and other student associations had long been banned in Metternich Austria . Only after the lost battle of Solferino was there a more liberal constitution, and with it, under the influence of the Schiller year of 1859, the first fraternities were founded in Austria. After the German War of 1866 at the latest , the fraternities of Austria were indifferent or even hostile to the Austrian state and advocated the annexation of German Austria to the German Empire . The German national and anti-Semitic politician Georg von Schönerer exerted great influence on the Austrian fraternities at the end of the 19th century. The protection of German nationality in a multi-ethnic state was another particular concern of the Austrian fraternities. On the part of the Catholic student associations , the attitude of the fraternities was later described as follows:
- "The cry for the connection to the German Reich, the adulation of the German heroes and politicians as well as the abuse of the Austrian fatherland and the Habsburgs had become the daily bread and the favorite pastime of the 60 fraternities and the many 'pan-German' associations and associations. "
In 1881, with the General Deputy Convent (ADC), which was renamed the Deutsche Burschenschaft (DB) in 1902 , the first long-term fraternity association was founded by Imperial German fraternities . Fraternities from Austria could not become members at first because the ADC and DB refused to deal with political issues before the First World War. In 1889, the Linz Deputy Convent (LDC) was founded as the Association of Austrian Fraternities and existed for eleven years. On May 19, 1907, 32 former LDC fraternities finally founded the fraternity of the Ostmark (BdO) in Linz . At the boys' day in Cilli in 1909, the BdO decided to create a military treasure to support the German School Association and issued its own treasure tokens . In 1915 the BdO decided to erect a memorial for the fraternity members who died in the First World War . In 1917 the connection tower of the former Linz defense system on the Danube was acquired and the conversion of the heavily neglected defense tower into a fraternity tower was started.
Association with the German Burschenschaft
When the DB opened to the fraternities of the former Austria-Hungary after the First World War , the fraternities of the BdO joined them on August 3, 1919, making the DB the largest corporation association . The BdO was dissolved in November 1919. Most of the Austrian fraternities took a “ racial point of view ” on the “ Jewish question ”. That is, baptized Jews were also excluded from membership. Most fraternities “in the Reich”, on the other hand, took a religious standpoint instead of a racial one and accordingly only accepted Christians , or had no admission restrictions for Jews at all. For the DB Boys' Day in Eisenach in 1920, the fraternities of the former BdO submitted four applications on the “Jewish question”. Requests were made for the DB to recognize the racial standpoint , to refuse to accept Jews into member fraternities, to exclude all Jewish members and to refuse to be satisfied with Jews. The reason for the recognition of the Austrian racial standpoint was that the fraternity should " not ignore the results of the latest race research ." The acceptance of two of these four applications (recognition of the racial standpoint, no further admission of Jews) by the Burschentag is still considered one important turning point and low point in the history of the DB ("Eisenach resolutions"). The memory of this also played an important role in 1961 when the Austrian fraternities were refused to join the DB.
Separation from the German fraternity and dissolution
After the seizure of power by the National Socialists in the German Reich the fraternities were based in Austria and Czechoslovakia for political reasons again from the DB. The BdO was re-established, banned in the Austro-Fascist corporate state because of its greater German orientation and continued to exist underground. After the annexation of Austria in 1938, as before in the German Reich, all student associations were forced to dissolve by the National Socialists, whereby the BdO also perished.
After the Second World War , Austrian fraternities founded the Association of German Burschenschaft in Austria (DBÖ), and since 1971 they can be members of the DB again.
- List of umbrella organizations of student associations
- Student associations in Austria
- History of the fraternities
- History of Austria
- Günter Cerwinka: “'Jewish' and 'clerical questions' in the convention protocols of the Graz fraternity Allemannia 1919/1920.” In: Bernhard Schroeter (Ed.): For fraternity and fatherland . Books on Demand. 2006. ISBN 3833444444 . Pp. 261-280.
- Martin Graf (Ed.): 150 years of German fraternities in Austria: yesterday, today, tomorrow. Ares-Verlag , Graz 2009. ISBN 978-3-902475-82-4 .
- John Haag: "Students at the University of Vienna in the First World War". In: Central European History , Vol. 17, No. 4. 1984. pp. 299-309.
- Benno Imendörffer : "Fraternity of the Ostmark and German Burschenschaft". In: Burschenschaftliche Blätter 34/7 (1920), pp. 118–119.
- Harald Lönnecker : "100 Years of the Fraternity of the Ostmark". In: Burschenschaftliche Blätter 1/2008.
- Harald Lönnecker: "... to shake up the German people in times of deep national humiliation, to inspire them for a united and free German fatherland and to lead them against internal and external enemies" - The Fraternity of the Ostmark (BdO) and its predecessors 1889-1919 . In: Helma Brunck, Harald Lönnecker , Klaus Oldenhage (eds.): "... a big whole ... even if different in its parts". Contributions to the history of the fraternity (representations and sources on the history of the German unity movement in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, volume 19). Winter, Heidelberg 2012. ISBN 978-3-8253-5961-4 . Pp. 516-630.
- ^ Robert Rehberger: CV and National Socialism. A contribution to Austrian and German student history . Publications of the Austrian Society for Research into Student History Vol. 2, Vienna 1967, p. 5.
- ^ Fraternity history: Treasure marks
- ↑ German Burschenschaft: The Burschenschafterturm ( Memento of the original from January 3, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ a b Günter Cerwinka: “'Jewish' and 'clerical issues' in the convention protocols of the Graz fraternity Allemannia 1919/1920.” P. 265.
- ↑ Peter Kaupp: Burschenschaft und Antisemitismus (PDF; 129 kB) , p. 1.