German school association
Deutscher Schulverein ( DSchV ) was the name of a so-called protection association of Germans in all crown lands of the Austrian half of the empire .
The German School Association and the German School Association Südmark actively supported the strengthening of border and foreign Germanism. He was mainly active in Bohemia , Moravia , Austrian Silesia , Galicia and Bukowina , Lower Styria , Carniola and the coastal region . He also worked in Southern and Western Tyrol .
The areas that belonged to the Hungarian half of the empire ( Hungary , Transylvania , Slovakia , Croatia and Slavonia ) were left to the Berlin sister organization by the German School Association .
The German School Association was founded on May 13, 1880 as a result of the cisleithan language ordinances. According to the founding call, the primary goal of the school association should be to promote the efforts of the population to establish German schools and to maintain the existing ones in communities with a German minority population "where the establishment of a German school cannot be achieved at public expense. Schools) to contribute to the salaries of teachers and teaching material costs through grants ”.
The first official meeting of the association took place on July 2, 1880. At this point in time 3,150 membership applications had already been received, and by the end of 1880 a total of 22,000 members had joined the school association.
After almost ten years the members were organized in 1,128 local groups and at the end of 1889 the school association had 98,000 members who came from all strata of the German-Austrian population.
The German School Association found particular support from the Styrian local poet Peter Rosegger , who u. a. In 1909 he supported the work of the association with its famous appeal for donations "2,000 kroner times 1,000 are 2 million kroner" - just four years later, over 3 million kroner had arrived in the donation account.
In 1914, a piece of land from the City of Vienna was acquired in the 8th district of Vienna for 400,000 crowns , on which today's “school club house” was built (Fuhrmannsgasse 18 A). The building was donated by the Moravian industrialist and patron Robert Primavesi .
Representatives of all political camps belonged to the German School Association. The most famous were
- Viktor Adler , founder of the Social Democratic Party of Austria and the Arbeiter-Zeitung , Austrian Foreign Minister and avowed supporter of the union in November 1918
- Ludwig Barth zu Barthenau , Austrian chemist
- Johannes Brahms , German composer, pianist and conductor
- Carl Wilhelm Christian von Doderer , Austrian architect
- Gustav Groß , member of the Reichsrat of the German progressive in the Austrian Reichsrat, last president of the Austrian Reichsrat from 1917 to 1918, 1920–1928 chairman of the Großdeutsche People's Party
- Wilhelm von Hartel , classical philologist and politician
- Heinrich Laube , writer and theater director
- Franz Xaver Mitterer, priest and school man on the Deutschnonsberg in South Tyrol
- Engelbert Pernerstorfer , member of the Reichsrat and representative of the German national direction in the Social Democratic Party of Austria
By 1914, the DSchV had built 152 self-operated schools and kindergartens and employed 80 teachers and 100 kindergarten teachers.
Many Jews were members and sponsors of the DSchV, including the Free Scientific Association in Berlin from the start. Because of this, conflicts arose with supporters of the " German National Movement " Georg Ritter von Schönerers as early as the 1880s , which fundamentally disrupted the liberal attitude of the DSchV towards Jews . Since the Schönerians were unable to assert themselves with their views within the association, they left the DSchV and founded the anti-Semitic school association for Germans as a counter-organization. The churches also began to set up protective associations, which were very similar to the school association, but in contrast to this only pursued purely church-political goals.
After the end of World War I and the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy, the " German Cultural Association " was founded in 1918 in Czechoslovakia , which was the legal successor to the German School Association in Bohemia and Moravia.
In the Republic of Austria, the German School Association and the " Südmark " merged in 1925 to form the "German School Association Südmark" and joined the Reich German " Association for Germanness Abroad (VDA) ". Many members of the DSchV were politically close to the Greater German People's Party , while members of the “School Association for Germans” found their political home primarily in the German National Socialist Workers' Party .
But already on March 13, 1938 the end of the German School Association came: with the "Anschluss" of Austria (then renamed "Ostmark" ) the association was dissolved and its members finally became part of the Reich German " Volksbund für das Deutschtum abroad (VDA) “Convicted.
Role model for other protection associations
The German School Association was a model for the following protective associations, which were also dedicated to the endangered border and foreign Germans:
- General German School Association (ASchV) , which was founded in 1881 from the Reich German groups of the German School Association in Berlin and was renamed "Association for Germans Abroad (VDA)" in 1909.
- Südmark , which was founded in Graz in 1889.
These two organizations were officially regarded as sister associations of the DSchV and were actively supported by it, but there were ideological differences. The German School Association was seen as largely bourgeois-liberal, while the Südmark Association was clearly nationalist.
The language battles of the Germans on the borders of the German-speaking area resulted in a large number of protective leagues, the goals of which were very similar to the DSchV, ADSchV and the Südmark:
- German Bohemian Forest Federation
- Association of Germans in Bohemia
- Association of Germans in North Moravia
- Association of Germans in South Moravia
- Association of Germans in Lower Austria
- Association of Christian Germans in Galicia
- Tyrolean Volksbund
From 1903 to 1920 the German School Association published the Faithful Eckart as an association publication as a “monthly for the general interests of German protection work”.
In 1923, the Getreue Eckart was converted into a family magazine that was published until 1943.
Another important means of propaganda and financing of the school association was - in addition to the sealing stamps for letters (often referred to as so-called military treasure stamps ) - the issue of picture postcards with "patriotic" motifs.
The successor organization of the DSchV was the " Österreichische Landsmannschaft " after the Second World War .
In 1955 the DSchV was re-established. Today it has the status of a traditional association within the ÖLM , as it has ceded its original protective activity to it.
- Frank Grobe: The German School Association , in: Frank Grobe: Circle and gear. Engineers in the bourgeois struggle for emancipation around 1900. The history of the technical fraternity , in: Oldenhage, Klaus (ed.): Representations and sources for the history of the German unity movement in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries , Vol. 17, Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 2009, p. 321 -329. ISBN 978-3-8253-5644-6 .
- Peter Haslinger (Ed.): Protection associations in East Central Europe - Associations, language conflicts and dynamics of national mobilization 1860-1939. Herder Institute, Marburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-87969-345-0 .
- ↑ Der Deutsche Schulverein , in: Erwin Barta, Karl Bell: History of the protection work on the German Volkstum , Dresden 1930, p. 14.
- ↑ Der Deutsche Schulverein , in: Erwin Barta, Karl Bell: History of the protection work on the German Volkstum , Dresden 1930, p. 20.
- ^ Walter Wiltschegg: Austria - the "Second German State"? The national thought in the First Republic . Graz / Stuttgart 1992, p. 194.
- ^ Contributions to Austrian student history: Volume 27: BILDPOSTKARTEN-KATALOG Protection associations and related organizations until 1938 ; 245 pages. Available from the Austrian Association for Student History (ÖVfStG)