Game fish

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The division of living beings into systematics is a continuous subject of research. Different systematic classifications exist side by side and one after the other. The taxon treated here has become obsolete due to new research or is not part of the group systematics presented in the German-language Wikipedia.

The noble fish (Physostomi, Müller , 1844) are an outdated order of the bony fish (Osteichthyes). Their characteristic is that they have an air duct (ductus pneumaticus) emanating from the swim bladder . The term is used as a physostome for this feature in anatomy to this day.


The human medicine specialist and anatomist Johannes Müller defined the taxon in 1844 for his work Horae ichthyologicae: Description and illustration of new fish (1845–1849, with F. H. Troschel ), from which some taxons are still in use today. The Latin name comes from the Greek physa 'bladder' and stoma 'mouth'. The German name is based on the fact that "they really include the finest of all fish and the largest part of our river fish ."

Originally the game fish were a division of the soft fins (Anacanthini) within the fish (Pisces). In the 1880s, Brehm placed them as a separate (fifth) order in the (second) row of bony fish (Teleostei at the time, now Osteichthyes) next to the Anacanthini. Later it was also seen as a subordination of the order Teleostei. The group disappeared from the common scientific classifications in the early 20th century.

According to Brehm's animal life , as of 1884, the order was divided into thirteen families with 45 clans:

  • Catfish (Siluridae), 8 clans in four groups
    - today: Catfish (Siluriformes): Real catfish (Siluridae); and much more
  • Tetra (Characinidae): Clan Sägesalmler (Serrosalmo)
    - today: tetras (Characiformes): real tetras (Characinidae), Sägesalmler (Serrasalmidae), and many more
  • Salmon (Salmonidae): 5 families: salmon (Salmo), stink salmon (Osmerus), capelin (Mallotus), whitefish (Coregonus), ash (Thymallus)
    - Today salmon-like (Salmoniformes) / salmon fish (Salmonidae): 3 subfamilies
  • Pike (Esocidae / Kinship Esox)
    - today pike-like (Esociformes), extended family Esocidae , pike ( Esox )
  • Dogfish (Umbridae): clan dogfish (umbra)
    - Today dogfish (Umbridae / Umbra ) as a genus of the pike-like species
  • False pike ( Scomberesocidae ): Garfish ( Belone), jackfish (Scomberesox), high-flying fish (Exocoetus)
    - Today garfish (Beloniformes): garfish (Belonidae): several genera; Flying fish (Exocoetidae); u. a.
  • Tooth carp (Cyprinodontidae / Anableps clan)
    - Today tooth parsons (Cyprinodontiformes): Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei : four eyes ( Anableps )
  • Carp (Cyprinidae): 18 clans
    - today: carp fish (Cyprinidae)
  • Loaches (Acanthopsidae): clan bearded gobies (Cobitis)
    - today Schmerlenartige (Cobitoidea) as subordination of the carp-like (Cypriniformes), wolffish (Cobitidae) Cobitis ; Bearded goby is the brook loach , today the genus Barbatula
  • Osteoglossidae: clan Arapaima (Arapaima)
    - today an extended family of the bone tongues (Osteoglossidae); Arapaima
  • Herring (Clupeidae): clan herring (Clupea), allis shad (Alausa), anchovy (Engraulis)
    - today herring (Clupeidae): real herrings ( Clupea ), Alosinae ( allis shad or Alse is specifically Alosa alosa ); Anchovies (Engraulidae); u. a.)
  • Nacktaale (Gymnotidae): tribe of drill fish (Gymnotus)
    - Today New World knife fish (Gymnotiformes) or knife eels (Gymnotidae): electric eel (Electrophorus) and Gymnotus
  • Eel fish (Muraenidae): clans of river eels (Anguilla), conger eels, Muraale (Muraena)
    - today eel-like (Anguilliformes): [freshwater] eels (Anguillidae / Anguilla ); Conger eels (Congridae): conger ; Moray eels (Muraenidae): Muraena ; u. a. m.

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Ernst Ehrenbaum: Natural history and economic importance of the sea fish of Northern Europe. 1936, subordination Teleostei Physostomi. P. 6 (ff). (Reprinted by Salzwasser-Verlag, 2013, ISBN 978-3-8460-3595-5 ; Books on Demand, 2017, limited preview in Google Book Search).
  2. Physostomes. In spectrum Academic publisher: Lexicon of Biology (1999, online on
  3. a b c d Alfred Brehm: Brehms Thierleben. General customer of the animal kingdom. Eighth volume, third division: reptiles, amphibians and fish. Second volume: fish. Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1884, Section Fifth Order: Die Edelfische (Physostomi) pp. 197–198 ( original text online ) - external systematics in the table of contents , ibid.
  4. ^ Alfred Brehm: Illustrirtes Thierleben. Volume 3: Lower Animals. Publishing house of the Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1870, section Die Edelfische. P. 306 ff ( digitized version, Google, full view - Die Weichflosser there p. 287 ff).