Fritz Jöde

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Fritz Jöde (born August 2, 1887 in Hamburg ; † October 19, 1970 ibid) was a German music teacher and one of the leading figures in the youth music movement .


Fritz Jöde 1932

Jöde was the son of a master shoemaker. After graduating, Jöde initially worked as a teacher at an elementary school in Hamburg and joined the youth movement in 1916 . At first he was a musical self-taught . Due to his achievements in the field of folk music care, he was released from school service to study musicology. In 1920 and 1921 Jöde studied in Leipzig, mainly with Hermann Abert .

Following this, Jöde went to Berlin as a lecturer at the State Academy for Church and School Music in 1923 . There he founded the first state youth music school in the same year . In 1926, Jöde also initiated so-called open singing lessons . From 1930 he was given the management of the seminar for folk and youth music care at the academy, to which he was still associated.

After the " seizure of power " by the National Socialists in 1933, he was given leave of absence "until further notice". An article by Pfitzner biographer Walter Abendroth in the Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger and others in the Zeitschrift für Musik and the Allgemeine Musikzeitung may have played a role in this leave of absence . There was also a "declaration against Jöde" in the latter two newspapers, which was signed by Hans Pfitzner , Paul Pretzsch, Heinz Pringsheim and Paul Schwers, among others .

In 1934 Der Musikant: Songs for School was published, edited by Fritz Jöde in Georg Kallmeyer Verlag (Wolfenbüttel, Berlin 1934). The songbook is divided into seven chapters. In the last chapter Germany in the song , the cover picture is provided with a swastika. Songs are gathered here that propagate the strengthening of Hitler's Germany, e.g. B. Heinrich Spitta (1933): Awakening , canon of two voices after the words of Friedrich Schiller (1798): “And if you don't commit your life, your life will never be won” or by Otto Riethmüller (1933): Germany Awakening (set by Heinrich Spitta ), in it the 3rd stanza: “There was once a gray army, wrestling from the Alps to the sea. You fight for the future country, work and freedom for every class. Fighter country, Hitler country, shield yourself from God's hand ”.

Due to disciplinary proceedings in October 1936, Fritz Jöde was relieved of all offices with effect from February 26, 1937; some of his writings were also banned. In 1937, however, he became head of the youth radio in Munich and in 1938 head of the HJ Spielschar there. From 1939 to 1945 he worked as a teacher at the Mozarteum in Salzburg . On January 1, 1940, he joined the NSDAP (membership number 7,792,080). From 1940 to 1944 he was also editor of the magazine for game music .

Jöde, who had lived in Bad Reichenhall since 1941 , initially became director of the local Protestant church choir after the end of the Second World War in 1945. From 1947 to 1952 he was head of the office for youth and school music in Hamburg . From 1951 to 1953, also in Hamburg, he was in charge of music education at the music college. He then went to Trossingen to head the International Institute for Youth and Folk Music .

In 1957 Jöde was awarded the Great Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Jöde died on October 19, 1970 in Hamburg at the age of 83. He was buried in the Nienstedten cemetery .

Jöde's pedagogical principles grew out of the youth music movement . His goal was to create “a singing youth” and “a singing people”. The (school) child should also be looked after outside of school. Open singing hours on markets and squares in large cities were intended to fight pop and jazz as well as to protest against the “bourgeois hypocrisy” in opera and concert halls. Jöde's main principle was: "Even making music is better than listening to music." So his main concern was to activate young people.

Works (song collections)

  • Ringel-Rangel-Roses (1913)
  • 1813 Im Liede (A collection of folk and popular songs from the time of the Wars of Liberation , 1913)
  • The small rose garden (song compositions based on poems by Hermann Löns , 1917, new edition 1950).
  • The musician (1923)
  • The canon. 3 volumes (1925-26); Complete volume (1928/1959/1997), ISBN 3-7877-1030-2 .
  • The choir book (1925)
  • The Singstunde (song sheets, 1929)
  • Frau Musica (A Singing Book for the House, 1929)
  • The Pot (1936)
  • Old madrigals (and other a cappella chants for mixed choir from the 16th and early 17th centuries, 1948)

Works (music theory writings)

  • Music and education. An educational attempt and a series of life images from school. Zwißler, Wolfenbüttel 1919.
  • The vital question of the new school. Hall, Lauenburg / Elbe 1921.
  • Music schools for youth and people. An order of the day. Zwißler, Wolfenbüttel 1924.
  • The art of Bach. Depicted on his inventions. "In order to get over a strong foretaste of the composition" (= Organik. 1, ZDB -ID 2253442-8 ). Kallmeyer, Wolfenbüttel 1926.
  • as editor: Handbooks for Music Education. Kallmeyer, Wolfenbüttel 1927-1932, ZDB -ID 2219290-6 .
    • Volume 3: Fritz Jöde: Elementary theory of music given as instruction in sheet music singing.
      • Volume 3, 1: Acquisition of the level space assuming a relative Oreintierungspunkt.
        • Volume 3, 1, 1: The tiered kingdom. 1927.
    • Volume 5: Fritz Jöde: The creative child in music. An instruction for teachers and friends of youth.
      • Volume 5, 1: On the theory of creation. 1928;
      • Volume 5, 2: From the practice of creating. 1928.
  • Child and music. An introduction (= writings of the school music group Berlin. 1, ZDB -ID 2219407-1 ). Comenius et al., Berlin et al. 1930.
  • Volumes in a row: building blocks for music education and music care. Series B. 1951–1957, ZDB -ID 1038275-6 .


  • Sabine Busch: Hans Pfitzner and National Socialism. Metzler Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-476-45288-3 . (Chapter 4.5)
  • Matthias Kruse: Fritz Jöde 1906–1923. Pedagogy in transition at the beginning of the 20th century. Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, Frankfurt am Main 2017, ISBN 978-3-631-72435-4 .
  • Hildegard Krützfeldt-Junker: Fritz Jöde. A contribution to the history of music education in the 20th century. Junker, Altenmedingen 1996, ISBN 3-928783-64-5 .
  • Thomas-M. Langner:  Jöde, Fritz. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 10, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-428-00191-5 , p. 452 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Karl-Heinz Möseler: Fritz Jöde on his 65th birthday . Möseler, Wolfenbüttel 1952.
  • Rika Tjakea Schütte: Fritz Jödes work in the youth music movement . VDM Verlag, Saarbrücken 2008, ISBN 978-3-639-01105-0 . ( Digitized version )
  • Reinhold Stapelberg: Fritz Jöde. Life and work. Hohner, Trossingen 1957.
  • Günter Trautner: The music education with Fritz Jöde. Möseler, Wolfenbüttel 1968.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f Fred K. Prieberg : Handbook of German Musicians 1933–1945. CD-Rom-Lexikon, Kiel 2004, pp. 3.428-3.429.
  2. Fritz Jöde (ed.): The musician: songs for school . New edition (43rd to 45th thousand of the complete works) edition. Georg Kallmeyer Verlag, Wolfenbüttel / Berlin 1943.
  3. 1. “Children's songs and games: partly with a melody instrument” (pp. 7–70) 2. “Colorful songs: now and then with free second voices and with instruments” (pp. 71–134) 3. “Old and new Songs: for single, alternating and choral singing, one-part, two-part and with instruments ”(pp. 135–198) 4.“ Folk and art songs [sic!]: Mostly with polyphonic setting with and without instrumental accompaniment ”(p. 199 –262) 5. “Songs and chants: by Praetorius, Scheidt, Schütz, Handel, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Bruckner and other masters with and without instrumental accompaniment” (pp. 263–326) 6. “Single and polyphonic chants with and without instrumental accompaniment by Joh. Seb. Bach "(p. 327–386) 7." Deutschland im Lied "(p. 387 to 418)
  4. Germany in song . In: Fritz Jöde (Hrsg.): The musician: songs for school . New edition (43rd to 45th thousand of the complete works) edition. Georg Kallmeyer Verlag, Wolfenbüttel / Berlin 1934, p. 387 .
  5. Fritz Jöde (ed.): The musician: songs for school . New edition (43rd to 45th thousand of the complete works) edition. Georg Kallmeyer Verlag, Wolfenbüttel / Berlin 1934, p. 389 .
  6. Fritz Jöde (ed.): The musician: songs for school . New edition (43rd to 45th thousand of the complete works) edition. Georg Kallmeyer Verlag, Wolfenbüttel / Berlin 1934, p. 391 .