Georg David Hardegg
Georg David Hardegg (born April 2, 1812 in Eglosheim , † July 11, 1879 in Haifa ) was a German businessman . In the period from 1832 to 1833 he worked for the liberal-republican idea and national unity of Germany as a participant in the Franckh-Koseritz conspiracy . Later he was a co-founder of the German Temple Society .
Live and act
Education, Trial and Exile
Georg David Hardegg was born in Eglosheim, a modern district of Ludwigsburg , on February 4, 1812. He was the second son of Johann Friedrich Hardegg and his wife Sabine Eiselen. After attending grammar school in Ludwigsburg, he first completed a commercial apprenticeship. This led him to Amsterdam and Antwerp in 1830, where he witnessed the Belgian Revolution and was politicized by it. Around November he returned to Eglosheim and discussed his experiences with his childhood friends Friedrich Ludwig Groß, Gottlieb Heinrich Mayer and Gustav Widenmann. During a second stay abroad in Paris, Hardegg met the bookseller Friedrich Gottlob Franckh (1802-1845) in September 1832 . Through his like-minded comrades, he came into contact with the French club "Les amis du peuple". There he got in touch with other German republicans. The idea also matured here to give up the commercial profession and study medicine.
In December 1831 he returned to Württemberg and prepared to begin studying medicine in Tübingen in autumn 1832 . His friend Franckh also returned in 1832 and attended the Hambach Festival , where he made contacts with other liberals. In the aftermath of the Hambach Festival, the Federal Government of the German Confederation passed resolutions in the Free City of Frankfurt that provided for repression against the opposition. This affected Hardegg, since he, like Franckh, was now among the revolutionaries and was traveling to Frankfurt am Main at his side . In addition, he met Lieutenant Ernst Ludwig Koseritz among the revolutionaries in August 1832 . With this, Hardegg made preparations for a putsch against the Württemberg regent Wilhelm I. In order to incite the citizens, he distributed republican pamphlets in the vicinity of his study site in Tübingen together with friends from young people whom he had drawn on his side. The investigations against the pamphlet distributors led back to him through the connection of other participants in the Franckh-Koseritz conspiracy , so that he volunteered on February 1st. He was imprisoned for a total of eight years for “revolutionary activities”. His trial began in January 1833 for high treason . The trial lasted until 1839. In the first instance he was sentenced to 14 years in prison and, after revision, the sentence was reduced to nine years. In 1840 Hardegg was released from prison on the condition that he leave Württemberg and go into exile .
Hardegg emigrated to Schaffhausen in Switzerland in 1840 and initially worked as an accountant , later as head of a trading company. In 1846 he returned to Ludwigsburg, as he was granted amnesty by Wilhelm I. on the 30th anniversary of the throne . There he opened a leather goods shop.
The temple movement
During his time in prison, Hardegg had turned to Christian mysticism . In 1848 he met Christoph Hoffmann and his temple movement . In Hardegg Hoffmann found a co-religionist with whom he could realize his religious ideas. For Hardegg it became clear in the period that followed that there was no suitable place for the new religious community to find unhindered religious development on the territory of a German principality . Hardegg therefore pushed the plans for the community to emigrate.
In 1854 Hardegg began to register candidates for the journey to Palestine. On August 24, 1854, a larger meeting led by Hoffmann took place in Ludwigsburg, at which the establishment of the “Society for the Gathering of the People of God in Jerusalem” was announced to the public. At this event, a petition was written to the German Bundestag in Frankfurt, in which it was asked to intervene with the Turkish Sultan to enable the “people of God” to settle in Palestine .
In 1858 Hardegg and Hoffmann undertook the first expedition to Palestine to look for opportunities to settle. After their return, Hoffmann and Hardegg led the temple society together. In 1859, due to the religious activities of the temple society, the break with the Protestant regional church of Württemberg took place .
In August 1868, Hardegg and Hoffmann set out for the Holy Land with their families . In the late autumn of 1868 they came to the Palestinian Mediterranean coast near Haifa to set up a "receiving station" and permanent temple settlement here. In the spring of 1869, they founded the first Templar colony in nearby Haifa. Hardegg became their head. During this time, contacts between Hardegg and representatives of the Baha'i religion developed .
The division of management powers between Hoffmann, who headed the Jaffa, Sarona and Rephaim settlements , and Hardegg did not prove successful. In the following period there was a falling out between Hardegg and Hoffmann. In June 1874, Christoph Hoffmann was elected sole head of the community. The Templars fell apart and a schism broke out . After personal and substantial disputes between the temple rulers Christoph Hoffmann and Hardegg, around a third of the Templars with Hardegg left the temple society.
Those who left Hardegg were looking to join another Christian denomination. For this purpose they turned to the Lutheran Church of Sweden (1874) and the Anglican Church Missionary Society (1879), but both refused to take on the resigned. In 1878, Hardegg and most of the others who had left the Temple Association , but after Hardegg's death the following year, the solidarity of his followers waned. Georg David Hardegg died on July 11, 1879 in Haifa.
In 1885 Carl Schlicht, pastor of the Protestant congregation in Jerusalem , began to evangelize among those who had left the late Hardegg. So it was possible - initially only in Haifa - to form an evangelical congregation from former Templars. In 1889, converted Templars and some other Protestants constituted the evangelical community of Jaffa . Both congregations joined the Evangelical Church of the older Prussian provinces as members.
After his release from prison, he married Sabine Dorothee Hartmann (1814–1885) on May 10, 1840. Both daughter Klara Hardegg (1850–1885) married the architect Theodor Sandel in 1874 . The daughter Sophie Hardegg married the Dane Peter Julius Löytved in 1869, through both of whom Hardegg became the grandfather of Julius Löytved-Hardegg , a German diplomat. Hardegg's son Ernst David was Vice Consul for the United States of America in Jaffa from 1871 to 1909, where he ran the Hotel Jerusalem ( reopened as Drisco Hotel in June 2018 ). From 1910 to March 1917, Ernst Hardegg's son Jacob was US Vice Consul in Jaffa.
- Georg David Hardegg (ed.): Draft of a people society for the renewal of the Orient . Stuttgart 1867.
- Joachim Baur: From Asperg to Palestine. Georg David Hardegg: Revolutionary and co-founder of the German Temple Society . In: Hohenasperg or an early dream of democracy . Leinfelden-Echterdingen 1998, pp. 44-66.
- Joachim Baur: A revolutionary with two attempts. Georg David Hardegg from Eglosheim (1812–1879) . In: Ludwigsburg history sheets . 54/2000, pp. 69-94. die-exponauten.com (PDF; 1.9 MB)
- Thank God David Sandel: Hardegg, Georg David. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1966, ISBN 3-428-00188-5 , p. 646 f. ( Digitized version ).
- Jakob Eisler: Georg David Hardegg . Württemberg Church History Online
- ^ Joachim Baur: A revolutionary with two attempts Georg David Hardegg from Eglosheim (1812–1879) . Ludwigsburg history sheets. Ed .: Historical Association for the City and District of Ludwigsburg e. V. No. 54 / . Ludwigsburg 2000, p. 69-94 ( die-exponauten.com [PDF]). die-exponauten.com ( Memento of the original from October 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Joachim Baur: A revolutionary with two attempts Georg David Hardegg from Eglosheim (1812–1879) . 54/2000, p. 69 f.
- ^ Joachim Baur: A revolutionary with two attempts Georg David Hardegg from Eglosheim (1812–1879) . 54/2000, p. 71 f.
- ^ Otto Büsch: Handbook of Prussian History . Volume two. Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-11-008322-1 , p. 195 ( books.google.de ).
- ^ Joachim Baur: A revolutionary with two attempts Georg David Hardegg from Eglosheim (1812–1879) . 54/2000, pp. 72-77
- ^ High treason case Frankh and Comrades, State Archives Ludwigsburg
- ↑ Baden-Württemberg State Archives
- ^ Joachim Baur: A revolutionary with two attempts Georg David Hardegg from Eglosheim (1812–1879) . 54/2000, p. 84 f.
- ↑ Big opening ceremony on Mount Carmel ( Memento of the original from November 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Ejal Jakob Eisler ( איל יעקב איזלר): The German contribution to the rise of Jaffa 1850–1914: On the history of Palestine in the 19th century (Treatises of the German Palestine Association; Volume 22). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1997, ISBN 3-447-03928-0 , p. 113.
- ↑ Ejal Jakob Eisler (איל יעקב איזלר): The German contribution to the rise of Jaffa 1850–1914: On the history of Palestine in the 19th century (Treatises of the German Palestine Association; Volume 22). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1997, ISBN 3-447-03928-0 , p. 113 ff.
- ^ Walter Killy, Rudolf Vierhaus (Ed.): German Biographical Encyclopedia . Munich 1996, Vol. 4, p. 380, bundesarchiv.de ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Ejal Jakob Eisler (איל יעקב איזלר): The German contribution to the rise of Jaffa 1850–1914: On the history of Palestine in the 19th century (Treatises of the German Palestine Association; Volume 22). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1997, ISBN 3-447-03928-0 , p. 113 ff., Also footnote 479 on the same pages.
- ↑ Paul Sauer: From the land around the Asperg in the name of God to Palestine and Australia ., October 20, 1995
- ^ Joachim Baur: A revolutionary with two attempts Georg David Hardegg from Eglosheim (1812–1879) . 54/2000, pp. 79-84
- ↑ Ruth Kark, American Consuls in the Holy Land, 1832-1914 , Jerusalem and Detroit: Magnes Press of the Hebrew University and Wayne State University Press, 1994, p. 114. ISBN 0-8143-2523-8 .
- ^ Lester Irwin Vogel, To See A Promised Land: Americans and the Holy Land in the Nineteenth Century , University Park (PA): Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993, p. 152. ISBN 0-271-00884-9 .
|SURNAME||Hardegg, Georg David|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Founder of the German Temple Society|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 2, 1812|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Eglosheim|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 11, 1879|
|Place of death||Haifa|