Tomb of the Scipions

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The entrance area today
Sarcophagus of L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus (A) in the Vatican Museum
The same sarcophagus on an engraving by Piranesi c. 1756 in the condition of the original find, behind it the plate with the inscription I (Paulla Cornelia)

The Tomb of the Scipions is an ancient underground tomb in Rome . It was made around 280/270 BC. BC , at the time of the Roman Republic , and was initially reserved for the Scipions family , a patrician branch of the Cornelier family . From the imperial era , urns with the ashes of deceased members of the Lentuli , another branch of the Cornelier, were also buried there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the tomb was forgotten. In the 17th century it was first mentioned again, but only in the late 18th century finally rediscovered. The inscriptions on the sarcophagi from the time of the republic give an insight into the social conditions of the Roman aristocracy . Among them are the two so-called Scipionelogies , which are among the oldest known Latin texts that are written in verse .


Location of the Scipion Tomb in the south of late ancient Rome

Already in the Twelve Tables law of the 5th century BC BC, the oldest codified Roman law, burials within the Roman city area were expressly forbidden. Hygiene reasons as well as the risk of fire in fire victims may have played a role. Archaeologically, a number of cemeteries and tombs can be proven from the late 6th to the 3rd century in front of the gates of Rome at that time.

Originally, the complex was a Roman mile , i.e. about 1470 to 1490 meters, outside the Servian city wall in front of the Porta Capena on a small traverse between the from 312 BC. BC newly built Via Appia and the Via Latina laid out.

After the expansion of the city in Augustan times, the grave complex was now in District I (Porta Capena). Since the originally religiously defined urban area had been considerably expanded by the construction of the Aurelian city wall , it was now within the city walls . At that time, however, it had not been used for burials for about two centuries.

The excavation site is now part of the XIX. Roman Rione Celio on Via di Porta San Sebastiano, 9 and is about 250 meters in front of Porta San Sebastiano , the ancient Porta Appia . The lavishly decorated columbarium of Pomponius Hylas from the 1st century AD is also located here.

Building history

Ground plan and sections of the large and small burial chamber of Piranesi, approx. 1756
Reconstruction of the facade according to Coarelli 2000
Reconstruction of the facade of Canina in 1853

The grave of the Scipions is a so-called chamber grave and is one of the oldest grave types on the Via Appia. The graves of the Servilians as well as the Meteller and Calatinus also belong to this type .

Scipio Barbatus , who is considered to be the progenitor of the Cornelian Scipions, had the tomb built for himself and his descendants. Its concrete motives are not known, but the construction of a larger tomb in antiquity was an expression of aristocratic class consciousness. Since older sarcophagi of the Cornelii Scipiones were found in other places, it is assumed that Scipio Barbatus wanted to establish a new branch of the Cornelier. It is possible that the Cornelier owned land at this point; this is indicated by the grave of Publius Cornelius Scapula , consul of the year 328 BC. BC, who also received his final resting place in this area.

The construction of such a grave complex for several generations can also be explained by the fact that members of the Gens Cornelia, unusually during the Republic, were almost never buried by cremation. The first patrician cornelier was born in 78 BC. Chr. Sulla - as part of a state funeral - burned. The burial of Cornelier could well be accompanied by symbolic acts. So ordered Metellus Macedonicus , the long-time adversary Scipio Aemilianus , to carry his sons the stretcher with the body of his opponent to the grave.

Underground facility

The system was carved into an embankment of the Cappelacciotuff existing there . Although the site could have been used as a quarry before, it is more likely that the chambers were built specifically for the grave. The larger of the two chambers can be traced back to the beginning of the 3rd century BC by the oldest sarcophagus found there, that of Scipio Barbatus . To date. The smaller grave room is much younger, it was built between 150 and 135 BC. The oldest inscription found in the smaller grave room dates from 135 BC. During the last burial in the larger burial chamber 150 BC. Was made. The construction of the second chamber became necessary because the original chamber was completely occupied with around 30 sarcophagi at that time. Presumably it was arranged by Scipio Aemilianus , who was the first to be buried here next to his wife Sempronia.

Canina floor plan 1853

The grave complex with a base area of ​​around 15 by 17 meters was laid out almost in a square so that four longitudinal aisles are intersected by two cross aisles. The remaining four large rock pillars of the main chamber served to secure the ceiling. The southernmost of these pillars belongs to the younger, smaller chamber and has a slightly different orientation. The sarcophagi were placed around these pillars or on the walls. In some cases, niches were carved into the walls for reasons of space. The choice of place for the burial of Paulla Cornelia (inscription I), who was buried behind the sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus (inscription A) , also gives an indication of the full occupancy of the larger burial chamber . Her sarcophagus did not have its own front wall, and the lid with the inscription lay directly on the back wall of the sarcophagus of Barbatus. It is not known whether there was a spatial connection between the two chambers.

Construction above ground

The above-ground facility was also built in the 2nd century BC. Probably by order of Scipio Aemilianus, who lived between 146 and 133 BC. Took a leading position in the Roman aristocracy. He probably wanted to build a “museum of the fame of the family” or set an example in times of political rivalry with other aristocratic families.

At that time, conversions were probably also made inside, but mainly the above-ground facade was built over the grave entrances. It was driven into the rock, surrounded by large empty areas on the sides and consisted of half-columns over a podium. The entrance to the newer grave room is included in the construction. The facade was painted, three successive layers could be identified. From the information provided by Titus Livius and Suetonius it is known that the building was also decorated with three statues. In this form, the tomb must have "presented itself effectively to pedestrians coming from Rome on the Via Appia."

Mentioned by classical Roman writers

The grave is mentioned by three ancient Roman writers.

"When you step out of the Porta Capena and see the graves of Calatinus, the Scipionen, the Servilier, the Meteller, do you think they are unhappy?"
  • Livy mentions the tomb as follows:
"In Rome outside the Porta Capena in the tomb of the Scipions there are three statues, two of which are said to be those of Publius and Lucius Scipio, the third that of the poet Quintus Ennius."
  • Finally writes Suetonius about the installation:
"The poet Ennius died of a limb disease at the age of 70 and was buried in Scipio's tomb, before the first milestone outside the city."

From these mentions it appears that the location of the tomb was known within the first ancient Roman mile before the Porta Capena. Some information about the contemporary appearance of the complex has been preserved through these records.

Useful life

The tomb was from the death of Scipio Barbatus, who lived around 270 BC. Died until the middle of the 2nd century BC. Used for body burials. The most famous family member, Scipio Africanus , is not buried here. After Livius and Seneca , he found his final rest at his villa in Liternum not far from Volturnum ( Castel Volturno ) and Puteoli ( Pozzuoli ).

During the imperial period , urn burials were held by members of the lentuli belonging to the Corneli but less known , who had inherited the tomb from the extinct Scipions. It is believed that they were buried in the Scipion grave “out of a certain snobbish ambition” and “not free from political intentions”.

Rediscoveries and history to this day

First rediscovery in 1614

During the Middle Ages, most of the marble on the facade was burned to lime. In 1614 the underground parts of the grave were discovered and the complex was opened. The sarcophagus B was found, the L. Cornelius Scipio, the son of Barbatus and quaestor of the year 167 BC. Chr., Is attributed. The Latin inscription was broken out of this sarcophagus and sold to a stonemason. A member of the Barberini family bought the relic for 20 scudi and had it inserted into a wall of Palazzo Barberini . Like all other fragments found, it later ended up in the Vatican Museums . The grave itself disappeared from the public consciousness again. Giovanni Battista Piranesi must have known it, however, as he made various engravings of this motif, including a floor plan.

Second rediscovery in 1780

In May 1780 the grave was 'discovered' again, but this time the importance of the find was quickly recognized. The owners of the property used as a vineyard, the Sassi brothers, wanted to enlarge a cellar and came across the facility. The sarcophagi C (Publius Cornelius Scipio) and E (Lucius Cornelius Scipio) were found. In the same year the area of ​​the front cross passage (at today's entrance) and the right passage of the larger chamber were exposed. The entire complex was excavated by 1782; In doing so, the excavators proceeded with “downright vandalism”. Among other things, new walls were drawn in to support the complex; Inscriptions were added or sold in the wrong places, and the bones also disappeared from the previously untouched graves. Only the remains of L. Cornelius Scipio (son of Barbatus) were transferred to the Villa dell'Altichiero near Padua by Angelo Quirini , Senator from Venice .

Excavations and renovation measures in the 19th and 20th centuries

In 1831 Pietro Campana carried out a new excavation aimed at further exploring the tomb. He found the Columbarium of Pomponius Hylas . Eugen Petersen visited the facility around 1900 . He found original sarcophagi and inscriptions, but also replicas on the walls. From 1926 to 1929 the city of Rome initiated a comprehensive restoration and a new, systematic excavation, during which the original condition - as far as this was still possible - was restored. On this occasion, all remaining original sarcophagi and inscriptions were replaced by copies and assigned. In addition, more graves and a small catacomb were discovered on the site . Finally, a multi-storey house from the 3rd century AD was opened up above the grave. The grave complex was damaged during its construction. Further renovations were carried out in 2008 and 2011. The facility has been open for viewing again since 2012.


Today's floor plan of the complex with the names of the places where the sarcophagi were found and inscriptions A to I.
Family tree of the Scipions with assignment of the sarcophagi and inscriptions

Of the originally around 30 sarcophagi in the larger chamber, nine have survived in whole or in part over the centuries. With one exception (inscription G, see below), they can be assigned individually. There are two types.

In the first, older type, to which the sarcophagi with the inscriptions A and B belong, the sarcophagus was carved out of a solid block of stone. The remaining seven belong to the second type, in which the sarcophagi were composed of individual plates. The inscriptions on the sarcophagi have been typed alphabetically.

Inscription A: Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus

Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus (sarcophagus with inscription A) was 298 BC. BC Roman consul , the first of a long line of scipions in this office. His sarcophagus is by far the best preserved of all Scipion sarcophagi, it is also one of the oldest known and preserved sarcophagi of a Roman family burial site. Its dimensions are 2.77 meters long with a height of 1.41 meters and a width of 1.11 meters. It was hewn around 270/280 BC. From a block of tuff. In the complex he was in a dominant position directly opposite the entrance. The sarcophagus is of art historical importance because, on the one hand, it is unusually and richly decorated and, on the other hand, the exact time of its creation is known. It is modeled on a Greek altar of the type that was used in the Magna Graecia . The body, which tapers downwards, is adorned with a circumferential band of triglyphs and rosette metopes, the upper edge is finished with a Doric frieze. The lid ends in volutes on both sides , preceded by acanthus leaves . It is noteworthy that the sarcophagus bears two inscriptions. The upper inscription was written in red on the lid of the sarcophagus and was created at the time of Barbatus burial. It reads "[L. Corneli] o (s) Cn. f. Scipio ”. The inscription carved on the side is known as the first of the two Scipionelogies.

Inscription B: Lucius Cornelius Scipio

Lucius Cornelius Scipio (sarcophagus with inscription B) was the son of L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus. He was 259 BC Consul and a year later censor . His sarcophagus also bears two inscriptions. The name was painted red on the lid at the time of his burial “L. Cornelio (s) L. f. Scipio / aideles, cosol, censor ”. The carved inscription is known as the second of the Scipionelogies.

Inscription C: P. Cornelius Scipio

The grave inscription for this Scipion reads:

Inscription C

Quei apice insigne Dial [is fl] aminis gesistei / mors perfec [it] tua ut essent omnia / brevia honos fama virtusque / gloria atque ingenium quibus sei / in longa licuiset tibe utier vita / facile facteis superases gloriam / maiorum qua re lubens te in gremiu / Scipio recipit terra Publi / prognatum Publio Corneli. "

"Who wore the head ornament of the Flemish Dialis / Death caused everything to be short / Honor, fame and bravery, fame and talent / if it was granted to you to realize this in a long life / easily through your deeds you of the ancestors' fame / surpassed. Therefore willingly takes you into her lap / Scipio, the earth, Publius / Publius' offspring, Cornelius. "

It is believed that this man, who died early, was the older son of the older Scipio Africanus . According to Cicero, he was said to have been weak and died early. The inscription itself reveals something of the pressure that members of aristocratic Roman families were under to pursue a successful career in the republic. Death is blamed almost apologetically for the fact that the young man's excellent talents could not flourish; At the same time, it is pointed out that he could have surpassed the fame of his ancestors if he had not died prematurely.

Inscription D: L. Cornelius Scipio

The inscription reads:

Inscription D.

" L. Cornelius Cn. f. Cn. n. Scipio / Magna (m) sapientia (m) / multasque virtutes aetate quom parva / posidet hoc saxsum. Quoei vita defecit, non / honos honore (m), is hic situs. Quei nunquam / victus est virtutei, annos gnaetus XX is / l [oc] eis mandatus. Ne quairatis honore (m), / quei minus sit mandatus. "

“Lucius Cornelius Scipio, the son of Gnaeus, the grandson of / Gnaeus. This stone conceals great wisdom / and many virtues at the same time / with a short life. Im missing the life, not / the honor for the award. It lies here, never surpassed in / talent. He was 20 years old / It is determined by the Manen (?): You shouldn't ask for honor / because he has not yet held an office. "

As in the inscription C, it must also be explained in this case why the member of the Scipionic family did not have the opportunity to excel in an office. It was obviously important to reassure that this was not due to a lack of skills or values. Due to the early death alone, the young man could not do justice to the high family and public expectations of a Scipion.

Inscription E: Lucius Cornelius Scipio

Inscription E.

The translation of the epitaph for Lucius Cornelius Scipio reads:

“Lucius Cornelius Scipio, the son of Lucius, the grandson of Publius, quaestor, military tribune, died at the age of 33. His father subjugated King Antiochus. "

His father was Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus , he was the nephew of the elder Africanus.

Inscription F: Cornelius Scipio Asiagenus Comatus

The inscription reads in the translation:

"... Cornelius Scipio Asiagenus Comatus, son of Lucius, grandson of Lucius, died at the age of 16."

The deceased was the son of L. Cornelius Scipio (sarcophagus E, see above). He probably died before 160 BC. Chr.

Inscription fragment G: Unknown Scipione

The fragment reads:

" ----- [is / ----- Sc] ipionem / [… qu] o adveixei. "

So far it could not be assigned to any scipions.

Inscription H: Cn. Cornelius Scipio Hispanus

The inscription for Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Hispanus reads:

Inscription H

" Cn. Cornelius Cn.f. Scipio Hispanus / pr (aetor) aid (ilis) cur (ulis) q (uastor) tr (ibus) mil (itum) II Xvir sl (itibus) iudik (andis) / Xvir sacr (is) fac (iundis) Virtutes generis miesis moribus accumulavi. / Progeniem genui, facta patris petiei. / Maiorum optenui laudem, ut sibei me esse creatum / laetentur: stirpem nobilitavit honor. "

“Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Hispanus, the son of Gnaeus / praetor, curular aedile, bursar, twice military tribune / decemvir of the courts for freedom and civil rights / decemvir of the supervisory college of sibylline books / my gender I have increased merits through good manners / I have descendants conceived, striving for the father's deeds / I have asserted the glory of the ancestors, that they would be happy about / their offspring. My honor ennobles mine. "

This Scipion is a brother of L. Cornelius Scipio, who died at the age of twenty (see inscription D). In the inscription is recorded what was important for every member of one of the famous aristocratic families: to prove oneself worthy of one's ancestors through one's own deeds and to increase the reputation of the family. In addition, he still had to ensure the continued existence of the family so that the descendants can also prove themselves worthy of the obligation to their ancestors. The inscription is the only one in distiches ; all others are written in Saturnians . This can be achieved with the introduction of this meter by the poet Quintus Ennius (see below) in the first half of the 2nd century BC. Chr. Related.

Inscription I: Paulla Cornelia

The inscription reads in the translation:

Inscription I.

"Paulla Cornelia, daughter of Gnaeus and wife of Hispallus."

It is the daughter of Gnaeus Cornelius Calvus and wife of Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Hispallus . She was probably also the mother of L. Cornelius Scipio (see inscription D) and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Hispanus (see above inscription H).

The Scipion Logies (duplicate inscriptions on the sarcophagi)

The two second inscriptions on the sarcophagi of Scipio Barbatus and his son have entered literary studies as the Scipionelogies ( CLE 6 and CLE 7).

Inscription A.

Text of the inscription at Scipio Barbatus, A:

" [L (ucius)] Cornelio (s) Cn (aei) f (ilius) Scipio // (vacat) Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatus, Gnaiuod patre prognatus, fortis vir sapiensque, / quoius forma uirtutei parisuma fuit, / consol censor aidilis quei fuit apud vos, / Taurasia Cisauna Samnio cepit / subigit omne Loucanam opsidesque abdoucit . "

"Cornelius - Lucius Scipio Barbatus / The father Gnaevo's son - a man as clever as he was brave / Des good shape was appropriate to his - virtue / The consul, Censor was with you as well as Aedilis / Taurasia, Cisauna - he took him into Samnium / vanquished Lucania whole and - lead away the hostages. "

Inscription B.

The ologium on his son (sarcophagus and inscription B) reads:

" [L (ucios)] Cornelio (s) L (uci) f (ilios) Scipio / aidiles cosol cesor. / honc oino ploirume cosentiont R [omani] / duonoro optumo fuise viro / Luciom Scipione filios Barbati / c [o] nsol censor aidilis hic fuet a [pud uos]. / hec cepit Corsica Aleriaque urbe, / dedet Tempestatebus aide mereto [d] . "

"This one all alone, most Romans agree / was the very best man / Lucius Scipio, the son of Barbatus / Consul, Censor, Aedile, he was with you / He took Corsica and the city of Aleria / He gave him to the weather gods Temple by merit. "

The dating of the inscriptions has been controversial for about 150 years. While older research tried to determine the exact point in time at which it was created, today there is a tendency to only give approximate periods of time. The Elogium of the father is dated between about 270 and before 150 BC. That of the son is dated to the period between approx. 230 to approx. 150 BC. In general, the view is (still) held that the son was first to receive a dignifying inscription. However, since no one wanted to reset the father, his sarcophagus was also provided with an inscription of this type. This assumption is supported by the fact that a shorter, approximately one-and-a-half-line inscription on the father's sarcophagus has been removed to make room for the new, detailed inscription.

Both funeral speeches were written in Saturnians and are among the oldest known texts in Latin metrics . In particular, the formulation a man as clever as brave (elsewhere than a brave and wise man, whose appearance exactly corresponded to his values ) refers to a Greek model, namely to a translation of the concept of Kalokagathia ( καλοκἀγαθία = "excellence"). The theme of both philosophies is the fulfillment of those social norms that applied to the Roman upper class, which constituted the “core of their nobility”. The political concept of the speeches lies "in the juxtaposition of the traditional forms of the aristocratic government of the city and the attempt to concentrate power in a few hands."

The comparison of the inscription of Scipio Barbatus with other sources raises problems because the information is sometimes contradictory. According to the inscription, Scipio Barbatus won victories in Lucania and Samnium , but according to Livy (10, 11, 12) the campaign took place in Etruria . The Fasti triumphales record a double triumph for victories in Samnium and Etruria, but this is ascribed to Gnaeus Fulvius Maximus Centumalus , a colleague in the consulate. In research it was assumed that the family no longer knew the details of the events or did not use existing knowledge at the time the grave inscriptions were made.

So-called "head of Ennius"

It is known from tradition that Quintus Ennius found his final resting place in this tomb after his death at the age of around 70 and that his statue adorned the facade of the tomb. During an excavation in 1934, a marble head of a statue was found, but it was stolen shortly after it was found. Today only one photograph is known.

Urns of the Lentuli

In the grave urns have been found that were completely or fragmentarily preserved. The ashes of the deceased members of the Lentuli family were kept in them.


Wilhelm Friedrich Waiblinger wrote the poem Das Grab der Scipionen during his stay in Rome from 1826 to 1829 as part of his odes and elegies from Rome . The Italian writer Alessandro Verri wrote the novel Le notti romane al sepolcro de Scipioni ( The Roman nights at the tomb of the Scipions ) after the rediscovery of the grave in 1780, which was felt to be "sensational" at the time . The first edition appeared in 1792, another, more extensive one in 1804. In the book appear ghosts of famous personalities of antiquity such as Gaius Iulius Caesar or Cicero and philosophize against the backdrop of the Scipion grave about the transience of earthly fame. The work is considered "one of the most impressive literary testimonies to the pre-romantic-classicist descriptions of heroic landscape and architecture".


Used literature

  • Alan E. Astin: Scipio Aemilianus . Clarendon Press, Oxford 1967
  • Ranuccio Bianchi Bandinelli: The Roman Art: From the Beginnings to the End of Antiquity . Beck, Munich 1975, ISBN 3-406-00734-1
  • Marco Bussagli (Ed.): Rome - Art & Architecture . Könemann, Cologne 1999. ISBN 3-8290-2258-1
  • Luigi Canina : La prima parte della Via Appia - Dalla Porta Capena a Boville . Volume 1, Bertinelli, Rome 1853
  • Filippo Coarelli : Rome - An Archaeological Guide . Revised by Ada Gabucci. Zabern, Mainz 2000, ISBN 3-8053-2685-8
  • Filippo Coarelli: Il sepolcro degli Scipioni a Roma . Palombi, Roma 1988, ISBN 88-7621-344-9
  • Jon Coulston and Hazel Dodge: Ancient Rome: The Archeology of the Eternal City . Alden Press, Oxford 2000, ISBN 0-947816-54-2 (Oxford University School of Archeology Monograph 54).
  • WE Heitland: The Roman Republic . University Press, Cambridge 1923
  • Johannes Hösle: Small history of Italian literature , Beck, Munich 1995 ISBN 3-406-37470-0
  • Henner von Hesberg : Roman grave structures . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1992, ISBN 3-534-02446-X
  • Guntram Koch : Sarcophagi of the Roman Empire , Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1993, ISBN 3-534-10401-3
  • Peter Kruschwitz: The dating of the Scipionelogies CLE 6 and 7 . In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 122 (1998), pp. 273–285 ( online, PDF )
  • Fritz Heinz Mutschler and Peter Witzmann: Forms of Roman life as reflected in the grave inscriptions . In: Forum Classicum 4/2002 ( online , as of March 8, 2009)
  • Eberhard Paul : Ancient Rome . Koehler & Amelang, Leipzig 1972
  • Eugen Petersen : From Ancient Rome, Important Art Places No. 1 . 2nd edition, EA Seemann, Leipzig, 1900
  • Vincenzo Saladino: The sarcophagus of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus . Triltsch, Würzburg 1970
  • Leonella de Santis: I segreti di Roma sotterranea . Newton Compton, Roma 2008, ISBN 978-88-541-1234-6
  • Wilhelm Friedrich Waiblinger: Poems from Italy , Leipzig 1895
  • Frank W. Walbank , Alan E. Astin, MW Frederiksen, and RM Ogilvie: The Cambridge Ancient History . Second Edition, University Press, Cambridge 1989, ISBN 0-521-23446-8

further reading

  • Andrea Faber (Ed.): Body graves of the 1st – 3rd centuries Century in the Roman world. International Colloquium Frankfurt / Main, 19. – 20. November 2004 (= writings of the Archaeological Museum Frankfurt No. 21). Archaeological Museum, Frankfurt 2007, ISBN 978-3-88270-501-0
  • Peter Fasold , Thomas Fischer , Henner von Hesberg , Marion Witteyer (eds.): Burial custom and cultural identity: grave complexes and grave goods from the early Roman Empire in Italy and the north-west provinces, colloquium in Xanten, 16. – 18. February 1995 . Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne 1998, ISBN 3-7927-1620-8
  • Franz Dorotheus Gerlach: The death of P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus - A historical investigation . Seul & Meust, Basel 1839 (out of date)
  • Michael Heinzelmann (Ed.): Roman burial customs and additional customs in Rome, northern Italy and the north-west provinces from the late republic to the imperial era; International Colloquium Rome, 1. – 3. April 1998 . Reichert, Wiesbaden 2001, ISBN 3-89500-077-9
  • Anne Kolb and Joachim Fugmann : Death in Rome: grave inscriptions as a mirror of Roman life . Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2008, ISBN 978-3-8053-3483-9
  • Carlo Pavia: Guida di Roma sotterranea . Gangemi, Roma 1999, ISBN 88-7448-911-0
  • Stefan Schrumpf: Burial and funeral services in the Roman Empire. Process, social dimension and economic significance of caring for the dead in the Latin West . V & R unipress, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 978-3-89971-331-2

Individual evidence

  1. Hesberg, Römische Grabbauten , p. 19ff.
  2. Hesberg, Römische Grabbauten , p. 76 with his own very careful reconstruction proposal, p. 77.
  3. ^ Coarelli, Rome - An Archaeological Guide , p. 350.
  4. a b Kruschwitz, The Dating of the Scipionenelogien CLE 6 and 7 , p. 273, fn. 6.
  5. ^ A b c Coulston and Dodge, Ancient Rome , p. 265.
  6. Astin, Scipio Aemilianus , p. 244, fn. 3 with reference to Cicero, De Legibus 2, 57 and Pliny , Naturalis Historia 7, 187.
  7. Cicero, De legibus 2, 57 : primus e patriciis Corneliis igni voluit cremari “as the first of the patrician Cornelians he [Sulla] wanted to be burned”. Sulla's State Funeral: Appian, Civil Wars 1, 105-106 ; Plutarch, Sulla 38 .
  8. Astin, Scipio Aemilianus , p. 244.
  9. Derived from Coarelli, Il sepolcro degli Scipioni a Roma , plan on p. 9.
  10. ^ Coarelli, Rome - An Archaeological Guide , p. 352.
  11. ^ Coarelli, Rome - An Archaeological Guide , pp. 355–356.
  12. a b c d e Coarelli, Rome - An Archaeological Guide , p. 357.
  13. ^ Leonella de Santis, I segreti di Roma sotterranea , p. 244.
  14. ^ Coarelli, Rome - An Archaeological Guide , pp. 356–357.
  15. ^ Hesberg, Römische Grabbauten , p. 22.
  16. ^ Quotations from: Coarelli, Il sepolcro degli Scipioni a Roma , pp. 8/9.
  17. Tusculanae disputationes 1, 7, 13: an tu egressus porta Capena cum Calatini Scipionum Serviliorum Metellorum sepulcra vides, miseros putas illos? .
  18. 38, 56: Romae extra portam Capenam in Scipionum monumento tres statuae sunt, quarum duae P. et. L. Scipionum dicuntur esse, tertiae poetae Q. Enni.
  19. In Hieronymus, Chronicle p. 25 Reiff .: Ennius poeta septuagenario maior articulario morbo periit sepultusque est in Scipionis monumento intra primum from urbe milliarium.
  20. Hesberg, Römische Grabbauten , p. 23 with reference to Livius (38, 56, 1) and Seneca (ep. 86,1) as well as Valerius Maximus (5,3,2).
  21. ^ Both quotations from Coarelli: Rome - An archaeological guide , p. 359.
  22. a b c Coarelli, Il sepolcro degli Scipioni a Roma , p. 9.
  23. a b c Leonella de Santis, I segreti di Roma sotterranea , p. 243.
  24. Canina, Della Via Appia , p. 46, fn. 24 with reference to the publication of his engravings in 1795 by his brother.
  25. ^ Coarelli, Il sepolcro degli Scipioni a Roma , pp. 9/10.
  26. ^ Coarelli, Il sepolcro degli Scipioni a Roma , p. 10.
  27. ^ A b Coarelli: Rome - An Archaeological Guide , p. 352.
  28. ^ Coarelli, Rome - An Archaeological Guide , p. 361.
  29. ^ Petersen, Vom alten Rom, Significant Art Places No. 1 , pp. 99/100
  30. To this in detail: Saladino, Der Sarkophag des Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus .
  31. Koch, Sarcophagi of the Roman Empire , p. 124.
  32. a b c Bussagli, Rome - Art and Architecture , p. 48.
  33. AE 1987, 63 = CIL 1², 10.
  34. ^ Translation after Coarelli: Rome - An archaeological guide , pp. 354–355.
  35. Cicero, Brutus 77 . Cf. Coarelli, Rome - An archaeological guide , p. 354, which suggests doubts about the identification of the grave owner with the son of Africanus.
  36. a b c Mutschler and Witzmann, Forms of Roman Life in the Mirror of the Grave Inscriptions , p. 4.
  37. CIL 6, 1289 = 12, 11; quoted from Mutschler and Witzmann, Forms of Roman Life in the Mirror of Grave Inscriptions , pp. 4/5.
  38. ^ A b Translation after Coarelli, Rome - An archaeological guide , p. 355.
  39. See Mutschler and Witzmann, Forms of Roman Life in the Mirror of the Grave Inscriptions, p. 5.
  40. CIL 6, 1290 = 1² 12: L (ucius) Cornelius L (uci) f (ilius) P (ubli) n (epos) / Scipio quaist (or) / tr (ibunus) mil (itum) annos / gnatus XXXIII / mortuos pater / regem Antioco (m) / subegit ; Translation in Coarelli, Rome - An Archaeological Guide , p. 355.
  41. CIL 6, 1291 = 1², 13: [Co] rnelius L (uci) f (ilius) L (uci) n (epos) / [Sci] pio Asiagenus / Comatus annoru (m) / gnatus XVI .
  42. CIL 6, 1292 = 12, 14th.
  43. CIL 6, 1293 = 12.14; quoted from Mutschler and Witzmann, Forms of Roman Life in the Mirror of the Grave Inscriptions , p. 3.
  44. Mutschler and Witzmann, Forms of Roman Life in the Mirror of the Grave Inscriptions, p. 4.
  45. CIL 6, 1294 = 12, 16: [P] aulla Cornelia Cn (aei) f (ilia) Hispalli .
  46. a b Details in Kruschwitz, Die Dating der Scipionenelogien CLE 6 and 7 , pp. 273ff.
  47. CIL I², 6-7, quoted from Kruschwitz, Die Dating der Scipionenelogien CLE 6 and 7 , p. 277.
  48. ^ Translated from Mommsen in Coarelli, Rome - An archaeological guide , p. 354.
  49. CIL I², 8–9, quoted from Kruschwitz, Die Datierung der Scipionenelogien CLE 6 and 7 , p. 282 with reference to
  50. ^ Translation after Coarelli, Rome - An archaeological guide , p. 354.
  51. Kruschwitz, The Dating of the Scipionelogies CLE 6 and 7 , pp. 284/285.
  52. Kruschwitz, The Dating of the Scipion Logies CLE 6 and 7 , p. 273
  53. ^ Coarelli, Rome - An Archaeological Guide , pp. 353–354.
  54. Bussagli, Rome - Art and Architecture , pp. 48/49.
  55. Heitland, The Roman Republic , p. 151 fn. 1
  56. Walbank et al. a., The Cambridge Ancient History , Vol. VII, Part 2, p. 24.
  57. Waiblinger, Gedichte aus Italien , Vol. II, S. 16f
  58. a b c d Hösle, Little History of Italian Literature , p. 127

Web links

Commons : Tomb of the Scipions  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Coordinates: 41 ° 52 ′ 34.1 ″  N , 12 ° 30 ′ 2.7 ″  E

This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on May 10, 2009 .