Hawk fungus ( Sarcodon imbricatus )
|( L .: Fr. ) P. Karst.|
The hawk mushroom , hawk stinging or roe deer mushroom ( Sarcodon imbricatus ) is a type of mushroom from the family of the white spore stinging relatives (Bankeraceae). It comes from the genus Braunsporstachelinge , which is represented in Central Europe with a good dozen species. The mushroom got its German name from the scaly top of the hat, which is reminiscent of the plumage of a hawk . The scientific name is also based on the appearance of the fruiting bodies: it means something like “covered with tiles” (Latin imbricatus ) “meat tooth” (Greek Sarcodon ).
The hawk is Mushroom of the Year 1996.
The 5–15 (–30) cm wide hat is light to black-brown in color, flatly arched or deepened in the middle like a funnel. The top, densely covered with sparsely protruding, more or less pointed scales, is reminiscent of a hawk's plumage (name!). The light gray to gray, pettable, soft spines on the underside of the hat run down the handle, reach a length of up to 1 cm and a diameter of up to 0.5 mm. Finally, the spines are tinted purple-brown by the brownish spore powder . The often short and stocky stalk becomes 5–8 cm long, 2–5 cm thick and can be fused with other fruiting bodies at the base. Initially colored whitish, the stem continues to brown from the base. The initially whitish meat has a gray to brown color with increasing age. Both the taste and the smell are pleasantly spicy. However, older specimens taste a bit bitter. Adult giants can weigh up to 5 kg.
The spores , which are elliptical to round in outline, have roughly protruding, double humps and are 5–7.5 µm long and 4.5–6 µm wide. The spore length can be up to 8.2 µm.
Similar stinging species such as the gall stinging ( Sarcodon scabrosus ), the Finnish stinging ( S. fennicus ) and the scaly stinging or pine hawk fungus ( S. squamosus ) are mostly rare and do not reach the size of the hawk fungus. They differ in their strongly bitter taste - only the flaky prickle hardly tastes bitter - and a blackish to greenish-blackish stem base. Presumably there are no poisonous doppelgangers among the spiny rings. In addition, the hawk mushroom could be confused with cork stinglings ( Hydnellum sp.), Which , however, have a zoning in the meat.
The hawk fungus grows on moderately dry to moderately fresh, base-poor to well-supplied with bases, but strictly nutrient-poor soils in various beech and spruce-fir forests (hornbeam, woodruff, hair barley and fir forest, beech-fir and spruce-fir forest) . It can also be found in spruce forests over silicate, marl and limestone. As mycorrhizal fungi , the fruiting bodies always appear from the earth and not on wood. They often stand together in whole witch rings. It prefers higher altitudes, but also occurs in the lowlands. The species fructifies from June to November.
The hawk fungus is distributed meridional to boreal in the western Holarctic . It occurs in Asia (China, Japan, West Pakistan and Siberia), North America (USA; in Mexico boreosubtropical to montane) and in Europe in almost all countries. In Germany, the species has its focus in the southern federal states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, but is also found in all other federal states such as B. Berlin and Lower Saxony before. However, the population has been declining since 1970: The species has already been lost in large parts of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein. The acid and poison input as well as the eutrophication of the topsoil are held responsible for this development .
The hawk mushroom is edible. Young fruit bodies are particularly suitable for consumption, while older specimens taste bitter. Like many types of mushroom, the hawk is indigestible when raw or insufficiently heated and should therefore always be sufficiently cooked. Young fruit bodies are good for frying. The bitter substances can be removed from larger specimens by scalding and pouring away the boiling water. Dried and ground, the mushroom powder gives sauces and soups a spicy aroma. It goes particularly well with game dishes. However, the dosage requires some experience.
- Frank Moser: Portrait of the hawk fungus on Natur-Lexikon.com
- Ewald Gerhardt: BLV Handbuch Pilze, 3rd edition, BLV Verlag, Munich. 2002. p. 402. ISBN 3-405-14737-9 .
- Walter Jülich: The non-leaf mushrooms. Gelatinous mushrooms and belly mushrooms . Small cryptogam flora, Vol. II b / 1. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena. 1984. pp. 262-263
- German Josef Krieglsteiner (Ed.): Die Großpilze Baden-Württemberg . Volume 1: General Part. Stand mushrooms: jelly, bark, prick and pore mushrooms. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-8001-3528-0 , pp. 388-389.
- Joost A. Stalpers: Plate 5, Fig. 46: SEM image of hawk fungus spores . In: The Aphyllophoraceous fungi I Keys to the species of the Thelephorales . Studies in Mycology 35, 1993. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- German Society for Mycology : Distribution of the Habichtfilz in Germany . In: Mushroom Mapping 2000 Online . Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Rudi Winkler: List of recommended edible mushrooms . On: Pilze.ch . September 2009. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Heinz-Wilhelm Bertram: The 14 best seasoned mushrooms for single-origin mushroom powder . On: passion-pilze-sammeln.com . Retrieved August 17, 2012.