Hanover (ship, 1899)
The second Hanover of the Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) was a ship of the Cologne class , acquired between 1899 and 1902 , of which the NDL bought seven ships for its branch lines to the USA. She was the only ship of the class that was built abroad.
In 1922, she was also the only ship of the class to return to service with the NDL after the First World War. As part of the reduction of existing overcapacities, the Hannover was sold for demolition in December 1932 and scrapped in Bremen.
History of the ship
Between 1899 and 1902, the NDL had seven Cologne- class steamers built for use on the branch lines to North America. The ships had a small number of cabin spaces adapted to the needs of these lines and, if necessary, could also transport large numbers of tween deck passengers. Six of the steamers ( Cologne , Frankfurt , Cassel , Chemnitz , Breslau , Brandenburg ) were built in the region, only the order for the Hanover went to Great Britain as one of the last orders for Lloyd due to the heavy workload of the German shipyards .
As the first ship, the Köln (II) was delivered on October 18, 1899 from the Tecklenborg shipyard in Geestemünde , which delivered four ships of the class. Wigham Richardson & Co in Walker-on-Tyne delivered the Hannover on November 25, 1899 as the second ship of the class. The name Hanover of the Prussian province and provincial capital had previously been used by a steamer of 2571 GRT, which was used on all of the NDL's Atlantic lines between 1869 and 1894. The new Hanover was measured with 7,305 GRT and had a load capacity of 9,050 dwt. It had 112 cabin seats of the 2nd class and could accommodate up to 1,861 tween deck passengers. On December 2, 1899, she began her maiden voyage from Bremerhaven to Baltimore. Like the sister ship Frankfurt , it was used in late summer 1900 for troop transports for the East Asian Expeditionary Corps, and from September 4th transported German troops with the second squadron to China to fight the Boxer Rebellion , where it arrived on October 19th.
After deploying in East Asia, the Hanover returned to the NDL branch lines in the USA, calling at Baltimore, Galveston and New York. From March 1910 Philadelphia was added as a regular port of call in the USA, which was first called by the Frankfurt and where the Hanover first sailed on April 6, 1910. On December 31, 1913, the Hanover opened a three-week line to Boston and New Orleans . In 1913, the NDL transported over 280,000 passengers to the USA, around 30% of whom used these branch lines.
The Hanover was used on April 6, 1913 from Hamburg to Portland (Maine) and then on May 16 to Quebec and Montreal, and then from May 16, 1914 went twice to Canada on the line that had been in operation in the summer since 1909, which NDL served together with HAPAG , Holland America Line and Red Star Line .
When the war broke out, the Hanover , last deployed to Canada on June 27, was back at home, and was scheduled to be deployed there again. The Willehad and her sister Wittekind of the NDL were on this route when the war broke out.
Use during the war
At the beginning of September 1917, the sister ships Frankfurt , Chemnitz , Cassel and the Hanover , which had remained in their home country, were put back into service as transporters for the Oesel company . The Hannover was returned on December 1, 1917, the others remained in service until the end of 1918 / beginning of 1919. However, the Hanover was also used to transport the Baltic Division to Finland in the spring of 1918 and was then used with Chemnitz and Cassel on a regular connection between Helsinki , Tallinn , Libau and Danzig to supply the troops deployed in Finland with supplies Bringing the wounded, vacationers and prisoners to Germany. In May 1918 she is said to have carried out a record drive with 2,000 Kurland refugees, their household effects including their animals and 500 prisoners. Together with the Chemnitz , she also transported a contingent of troops, including their horses, to Narwa , the disembarkation of which with lifeboats towed by steam pinasses turned out to be extremely difficult.
Delivery and return to the service of Lloyd
On August 25, 1919, the Hannover was the last of the aforementioned sister ships and the Brandenburg , which came back to Germany from Norway, was delivered to Great Britain. There she was used as a troop transport with Chemnitz and Cassel , managed by Ellerman's Wilson Line, without being renamed.
The Hanover was bought back by the NDL in 1921 and prepared for passenger traffic on the North Atlantic. She received a renewed passenger facility for 91 cabin passengers and 514 passengers III. Class and started on March 25, 1922 as the third passenger ship of the NDL on the resumed line between Bremerhaven and New York after the two former mail steamers Seydlitz and York .
Due to the limitation of the number of immigrants in the USA, the passenger facility was limited from 1924 to up to 32 places in the second class. From 1926 she stayed as a freighter on the US voyage and from 1927 was used with Seydlitz and York on a new route from Hamburg via Bremen to Philadelphia, Baltimore and Norfolk (Virginia) , which was primarily used for freight transport and on the old passenger ships as well pure cargo ships were used.
At the end of 1932 the Hannover was taken out of service and sold for demolition.
- Noel RP Bonsor: North Atlantic Seaway. An illustrated History of the Passenger Services linking the old World with the new. Volume 2. Brookside Publications, St Brelade 1978, ISBN 0-905824-01-6 .
- Arnold Kludas : The History of German Passenger Shipping. Volume 2: Expansion on all seas 1890 to 1900. Ernst Kabel Verlag, Hamburg 1987, ISBN 3-8225-0038-0 ( writings of the German Maritime Museum 19).
- Arnold Kludas : The History of German Passenger Shipping. Volume 3: Rapid growth 1900 to 1914. Ernst Kabel Verlag, Hamburg 1988, ISBN 3-8225-0039-9 ( writings of the German Maritime Museum 20).
- Arnold Kludas : The History of German Passenger Shipping. Volume 4: Destruction and rebirth 1914 to 1930. Ernst Kabel Verlag, Hamburg 1988, ISBN 3-8225-0039-9 ( writings of the German Maritime Museum 21).
- Arnold Kludas : The ships of the North German Lloyd. Volume 1: 1857 to 1919. Koehlers Verlagsgesellschaft, Herford 1991, ISBN 3-7822-0524-3 .
- NDL annual report 1899
- Kludas: Passenger Shipping, Volume III, p. 16
- Kludas, Passenger Shipping, Vol. II, p. 110
- Kludas: Passenger Shipping, Vol. III, p. 19
- Herbert, p. 145ff.
- Herbert, pp. 149f.
- Kludas, Passenger Shipping, Vol. IV, p. 78
- Kludas, Passenger Shipping, Vol. IV, p. 84