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As Hepatology a specialty is Gastroenterology denotes that the physiology and patho (physio) logy of the liver and biliary tract , as well as diagnosis and treatment of diseases of these organs comprises. It is not a separate subject. The term “hepatologist” usually stands for a gastroenterologist who specializes in liver diseases, but does not require any special training as a professional title in Germany.

Diseases of hepatology

In the case of congenital malformations , a distinction is made between anomalies of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts including Caroli's syndrome , vascular anomalies and anomalies of the extrahepatic bile ducts.

Disturbances of the bilirubin metabolism , jaundice ( icterus ) and familial hyperbilirubinemia syndromes are classified

The inflammatory liver diseases are divided into viral infections ( hepatitis A , hepatitis B , hepatitis C , hepatitis D , hepatitis E and hepatitis G ), non-viral infections ( bacterial infections, infections by fungi and parasites such as amoeba - abscess , echinococcosis and liver fluke ), Granulomatous inflammation, autoimmune hepatitis and inflammation of the biliary tract ( cholangitis , primary biliary cirrhosis , primary sclerosing cholangitis , acute and chronic cholecystitis ).

A numerically large role gallstone sorrows of such toxic liver damage. B. from alcohol or medication and fatty liver . Liver fibrosis , liver cirrhosis and liver failure can occur as a result of various liver diseases . Metabolic disorders such as hemochromatosis , Wilson's disease ( hepatolenticular degeneration or copper storage disease), alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency , glycogenoses and porphyrias are less common .

Among the malignant neoplasms of the liver, liver metastases are the most common, hepatocellular carcinoma , bile duct carcinoma , cystadenocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma are rather rare.

In childhood neonatal icterus and congenital bile duct changes play a role . a. Byler syndrome ( Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis ), Alagille syndrome and Reye syndrome , the greatest roles in pregnancy, acute pregnancy fat liver and acute pregnancy cholestasis .

Investigation methods

Laboratory values

Imaging procedures

for the representation of the tissue architecture as well as any space requirements


A liver biopsy is an invasive procedure to remove tissue from the liver with or without ultrasound guidance. The microscopic tissue architecture ( histology ) is then examined .

Treatment methods of hepatology

Hepatologies in Europe


  • Herold: Internal Medicine , 2001
  • Böcker, Denk, Heitz: Pathology , Urban and Fischer