Gloss Chervil ( Anthriscus nitidus )
Chervil ( Anthriscus ) is a genus of plants within the umbelliferae family (Apiaceae). The 9 to 15 species are widespread in Eurasia and Africa. The cultivated form of the real chervil ( Anthriscus cerefolium ) is used as a spice .
Appearance and leaves
Chervil species grow as biennial or perennial herbaceous plants . The tap roots are thin or thickened. The upright stems are hollow and branched. The above-ground parts of the plant are hairy or hairless.
The leaves, which are usually arranged alternately on the stem, are often sessile. The base of the leaf blade is more or less clearly formed as a leaf sheath. The leaf blade, which is elongated to ovate in outline, is two to three pinnate or pinnate. The leaf segments are linear-oblong to ovate. The end sections are serrated or pinnate.
Inflorescences and flowers
The terminally or laterally standing on an inflorescence stem loosely assembled double-gold inflorescences contain many relatively small flowers . Bracts are missing. There are only a few spreading umbel rays. The few husk leaves are bent back and their smooth edge is ciliate. The flower stalks are spread out.
The five-fold flowers are mostly radial symmetry , in some species the marginal flowers are more or less zygomorphic and enlarged. The flowers are mostly hermaphroditic and fertile, with some species the inner flowers are sterile. Cup teeth are barely recognizable or are missing. The five white or yellowish-green petals are elongated or wedge-shaped with a narrow, inwardly curved upper end. Two carpels have become an under-earth, two-chambered ovary grown. The two styluses are short.
The elongated to egg-shaped split fruit , also called double achane , breaks down into two partial fruits when ripe. The smooth or bristly hairy partial fruits are more or less cylindrical, laterally flattened, deeply grooved and end in a beak. Oil channels are barely or not at all recognizable.
Systematics and distribution
The genus Anthriscus in 1805 by Christian Hendrik Persoon in Synopsis Plantarum , vol 1, page 320, first published . Type species is Anthriscus vulgaris Pers. , today a synonym of Anthriscus caucalis M.Bieb. Synonyms for Anthriscus Pers. are Chaerefolium Haller and Cerefolium Fabr . Anthriscus Pers. nom. cons. is conserved according to the rules of the ICBN (Vienna ICBN Art. 14.10 & App. III) compared to the homonym Anthriscus Bernh published in 1800 . nom. rej. The name Anthriscus was used by the Greeks in ancient times. The last revision of the genus Anthriscus is Krzystof Spalik: Revision of Anthriscus (Apiaceae) , In: Polish Botanical Studies. Cracow , Volume 13, 1997, pp. 1-69.
The genus Anthriscus is naturally widespread in temperate Eurasia and Africa . The main areas of distribution are in the northeastern Mediterranean and the Caucasus region . One species in North America is a neophyte .
In the genus Anthriscus there are 9 (in 2001) to 15 (in 2005) species:
- Hunds chervil ( Anthriscus caucalis M.Bieb. , Syn .: Anthriscus vulgaris Pers. Non Bernh. , Scandix anthriscus L. , Torilis anthriscus (L.) Gaertn. , Anthriscus scandicina (FHWigg.) Mansf. , Caucalis scandicina F.H.Wigg. )
- Real chervil or garden chervil ( Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. ): It has a wide natural distribution in Europe, the Middle East and the Caucasus .
- Anthriscus kotschyi Fenzl ex Boiss. : It occurs in Georgia and in the Asian part of Turkey.
- Anthriscus lamprocarpus Boiss. : It occurs in the southeastern Mediterranean region, in Turkey, in Syria in Lebanon, in Jordan and in Israel.
- Shiny chervil or gloss chervil ( Anthriscus nitidus (Wahlenb.) Haszl. , Syn .: Chaerophyllum nitidum Wahlenb. , Anthriscus alpestris Wimm. & Grab. ): It is widespread in Europe. It occurs in France, Germany, the Czech Republic, Switzerland, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Latvia, Ukraine, Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria and Romania.
- Anthriscus ruprechtii Boiss. : It occurs in Transcaucasia (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) and in the Asian part of Turkey.
- Anthriscus narrowhausenii Koso-Pol. : It occurs in Georgia.
- Cow parsley ( Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. , Syn .: Chaerophyllum sylvestre L. , Anthriscus sylvestris var. Aemula Voronov ): There are some subspecies. It is widespread in Europe, Africa and Asia (northern India, Kashmir, Pakistan, Nepal, China, Korea, Japan, Russia).
- Anthriscus tenerrimus Boiss. & Spruner : It occurs only in the Greek Aegean and in the Asian part of Turkey.
- Anthriscus velutinus Sommier & Levier : It occurs only in the northern Caucasus .
The cultivated form of the real chervil or garden chervil ( Anthriscus cerefolium ) is most frequently used. Its raw, fresh leaves are used in many ways as a spice. The leaves of the meadow chervil ( Anthriscus sylvestris ) are also eaten raw or cooked. The tap roots of Anthriscus sylvestris , perhaps also of Anthriscus cerefolium , can also be eaten cooked.
The medicinal effects of Anthriscus cerefolium have been studied.
A green dye can be obtained from the green plant parts of Anthriscus sylvestris , but it is not very durable.
- She Menglan (佘孟兰), John FM Cannon, Mark F. Watson: Anthriscus , p. 26 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (ed.): Flora of China , Volume 14 - Apiaceae through Ericaceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 2005. ISBN 1-930723-41-5 (Sections Description and Systematics)
- She Menglan (佘孟兰), John FM Cannon, Mark F. Watson: Anthriscus , p. 26 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (ed. ): Flora of China , Volume 14 - Apiaceae through Ericaceae , Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 2005. ISBN 1-930723-41-5
- Lincoln Constance, Margriet Wetherwax: Jepson eFlora , 2012.
- Anthriscus - the same text online as the printed work , In: Eugene Nasir: Flora of West Pakistan. 20. Umbelliferae. Stewart Herbarium, Gordon College (et al.), Rawalpindi 1972.
- Christian Hendrik Persoon: Synopsis Plantarum . tape 1 . Paris 1805, p. 320 ( First online publication by Anthriscus scanned at Biodiversity Heritage Library ).
- Ralf Hand: Apiaceae, Details for: Anthriscus. In: The Euro + Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, January 2011, accessed on May 16, 2018 (English).
- Anthriscus at Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, accessed August 13, 2013.
- Anthriscus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Krzysztof Spalik, Stephen R. Downie: The Utility of Morphological Characters for Inferring Phylogeny in Scandiceae Subtribe Scandicinae (Apiaceae) . In: Missouri Botanical Garden Press (Ed.): Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden . tape 88 , no. 2 , 2001, ISSN 0026-6493 , p. 270–301 , JSTOR : 2666227 ( full text (PDF file; 4.2 MB) - Chapter Anthriscus , page 272).
- Entries on Anthriscus in Plants For A Future . Retrieved August 13, 2013.
- Hansjörg Küster : A brief cultural history of spices. CH Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-42025-7 .
- John Francis Michael Cannon : Anthriscus. In: TG Tutin, VH Heywood, NA Burges, DM Moore, DH Valentine, SM Walters, DA Webb (eds.): Flora Europaea . Volume 2: Rosaceae to Umbelliferae . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1968, ISBN 0-521-06662-X , pp. 326 (English, limited preview in Google Book search).