Nikolai Ivanovich Tichomirow

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Nikolai Ivanovich Tichomirow ( Russian: Николай Иванович Тихомиров , scientific transliteration Nikolaj Ivanovič Tichomirov ; * 1860 in Moscow ; † April 28, 1930 in Leningrad ) was a Russian chemist and rocket pioneer .


Tichomirow's noble father was a councilor (5th class ). Tichomirow studied at the University of Moscow (MGU) in the chemistry department of the physics and mathematics faculty without a degree and worked in the technology laboratory of the MGU and in the laboratory Nikolai Andrejewitsch Bunges at the University of Kiev . He gave lectures on the production of nutrients and flavors .

Then Tichomirow worked as a chemist in various industrial sectors. At first he was assistant director in a cloth factory owned by the Babkin brothers. Then he became chief chemist at the Tereschchenko family's sugar factories . He invented filters with automatic washing of the filter materials for sugar factories, distilleries and dairies , which were widely used in the country and abroad.

From 1894 Tichomirow occupied himself with the development of rockets as carriers of explosive charges, which he called flying mines . In 1912 he presented his HE shell project to the Navy Ministry . During the First World War , he applied for a privilege for flying mines. For rocket propulsion, he suggested the combustion of easily flammable liquids or the explosion of powders in conjunction with an ejector . The invention was positively assessed in 1916 by the chairman of the invention department of the Moscow Military Industry Committee Nikolai Yegorovich Zhukovsky . The invention has been the subject of further investigation and was recognized as important in defense after the October Revolution of 1921. At Tichomirov's suggestion, the Laboratory for Flying Mines was established at the headquarters of the Red Army in Moscow with Tichomirov as director. The focus of the work was the development of the smokeless trotyl pyroxylin powder (using cellulose nitrate and trinitrotoluene ). In 1927 the laboratory with Tichomirow was relocated to Leningrad and in 1928 it was renamed the Laboratory for Gas Dynamics (GDL). Staff were particularly Andrei Grigorievich Kostikow , Vladimir Artemyev , Boris Sergeyevich Petropawlowski , Georgy Langemak and Ivan Issidorowitsch Gwai . The research there into the development of solid rockets led to the Katjuscha rocket launcher , the first samples of which were produced in 1938. In 1933 the GDL became the Moscow Research Institute for Rocket Engines under the direction of Ivan Terentjewitsch Kleimjonows .

Tikhomirov was buried in Moscow's Vagankovo ​​Cemetery .

In 1970 the International Astronomical Union named the lunar crater Tikhomirov after Tichomirov . In 1971 a monument was erected for Tichomirov in Moscow. In 1991 Tichomirov was posthumously honored as a hero of socialist work with the award of the Order of Lenin by ukase from the President of the USSR , as was IT Kleimjonow, GE Langemak, WN Luschin, BS Petropavlowski and BM Slonimer.

Individual evidence

  1. a b Tichomirow's tombstone (accessed June 30, 2018).
  2. a b c d e f Landeshelden: Тихомиров Николай Иванович (accessed June 30, 2018).
  3. Николай Иванович Тихомиров (accessed June 30, 2018).
  4. Большая российская энциклопедия: ТИХОМИ́РОВ Николай Иванович (accessed June 30, 2018).
  5. Boris Evsejewitsch Tschertok : Rockets and People, volume 1, NASA History series . 2005, p. 164 .
  6. Asif A. Siddiqi: Spoutnik and the soviet space challenge . University Press of Florida, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8130-2627-5 .
  7. Pierre Baland: De Spoutnik à la Lune: l'histoire secrète du program spatial soviétique . Edition Jacqueline Chambon- Actes Sud, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7427-6942-1 , p. 17 .