Extension of the language area
At the time of its greatest expansion before the Roman conquest, the language area of Oscar extended essentially over the southern half of mainland Italy , i.e. the regions of Samnium , Campania and Lucania ; in addition there was that of the Mamertines , Samnite mercenaries , who conquered Messina in Sicily . Older Italian languages, which were originally more closely related to Umbrian , were overlaid by the Oskish and were spoken in the central Italian area by the Marrukines , Paligns and Vestines .
The repertoire is also relatively limited in terms of content. There are mainly:
- Alphabet arias
- Funerary inscriptions
- Dedicatory inscriptions
- Building inscriptions
- official state treaties
- Festival calendar
- Owner's inscriptions on vessels
- Stamp (on roof tiles )
- Escape tablets
As a result, Oskish belongs to the category of corpus or debris languages, as large parts of the grammar and vocabulary are unknown to us.
The oldest inscriptions, which are still written in the language of the actual Oscar , date from the 6th century BC. Chr .; the bulk of the Oscar tradition dates from the 3rd to 1st centuries BC. Wall inscriptions are known from Pompeii , which must have been written relatively shortly before the city's destruction in AD 79 .
ekkum [SVAI PID herieset
Item [si quid volent]
Likewise, they can
According to the system
Oscan differed six simple vowels, two rounded (/ u /, / ɔ / ) and four unrounded (/ i /, / e /, / ɛ / , / a /), of which except / ɔ / and / ɛ / all also appear elongated. The more open vowels can be combined with the following / i̯ / or / u̯ / to form the five diphthongs / ɛi̯ /, / ai̯ /, / au̯ /, / ɔi̯ / and / ɔu̯ /.
The long vowels are often expressed by double letters, for example: NIIR / NER / = gr. Ἀνήρ Aner , man, 'TR꜔STAAMENTVD / trestāmɛntɔd / ≈ lat. Testamento . From the distribution of these spellings it is concluded that the inherited vowel length apart from the nasal was only preserved in the first syllable of each word, and that at the time of the shortening of the remaining long vowels, which refer to the period between 450 and 350 BC. BC, the word accent must have been on these first syllables, which is also assumed for contemporary Latin. In addition to the inherited lengths, new long vowels created by replacement stretching appear later (e.g. SAAHTV̇M / sāhtɔm / = Latin sānctum , holy, consecrated ').
Oscan had three each unvoiced and three voiced plosives : the bilabial / p / and / b /, the dental / t / and / d /, the velar / k / and / g /. For this purpose the came fricatives / f /, / s / (with voiced allophone between vowels) and / h /, the Nasal / m / and / n /, the Liquidae / r / and / I / as well as the semi-vowels / i / and / u̯ /.
Historical changes in sound
Vowel fading and weakening
The loss of inherited short vowels takes place in two phases: Already before the 6th century BC. Chr. Generally disappear in final syllables before the final s (HV̇RZ / hɔrts / <* gʰortos > Latin hortus 'garden'; LV̇VKIS / lɔu̯kis / ' Lucius '); in the 4th or late 5th century BC they disappeared in open as well as in / s / closing inner syllables (FACTVD / faktud / <* face-tōd > Latin. facitō 'mach!'; MINSTREIS / minstrɛes / <* minus-tero- ,smaller').
Only occasionally and exclusively next to labial consonants are examples of a sound change similar to the internal syllable weakening (which is typical of Latin ), the result of which is always a sound marked with the letter V : PRVPVKID <* prō-p a k- 'predetermined', PRAEFVCVS <* prai̯-f a k- , 'superior', PERTUMUM <* pert- e mom.
- The inscription of Avella in transcription, Latin and German translation. In: History of Roman Law. Christian Gizewski, 2000, accessed on December 4, 2012 (with illustration of the actual inscription).
- Emil Vetter, Handbook of Italic Dialects I: Texts with explanation, glosses, dictionary , Heidelberg 1953, a) Ve 5, p. 35; b) Ve 11, p. 49; c) Ve 147, p. 104; d) Ve 147, p. 105; e) Ve 4, p. 31; f) Ve 2, p. 15; g) Ve 2, p. 17; h) Ve 1, p. 8th; i) Ve 2, p. 16; j) Ve 2, p. 15th
- Hreinn Benediktsson, The Vowel syncope in Oscan-Umbrian , in: Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 19 (1960), pp. 157-295.
- Henricus Hubertus Janssen: Oscan and Umbrian Inscriptions. Brill, Leiden 1949.
- Katherine McDonald: Oscan in Southern Italy and Sicily. Evaluating Language Contact in a Fragmentary Corpus. Cambridge University Press 2015. ISBN 978-1-107-10383-2 .
- Jürgen Untermann: Dictionary of the Oskisch-Umbrian. Winter, Heidelberg 2000. ISBN 3-8253-0963-0
- Helmut Rix : Handbook of the Italian dialects. Volume 5: Sabellian Texts. The texts of the Oscan, Umbrian and Southern Piken. Winter, Heidelberg 2002, ISBN 978-3-8253-0853-7 .
- Rex E. Wallace: The Sabellic Languages of Ancient Italy. Languages of the World / Materials. Vol. 371. LINCOM Europe, Munich 2007, ISBN 3-89586-990-2 .