Otto Kandler

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Otto Kandler 1983 with the model of pseudomurein ( pseudopeptidoglycan )

Otto Kandler (born October 23, 1920 in Deggendorf ; † August 29, 2017 in Munich ) was a German botanist and microbiologist , most recently em. Professor of General Botany at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich (LMU).

The most important discoveries and fundamental works associated with Otto Kandler's name come from the areas of photosynthesis , plant carbohydrate metabolism, the structure elucidation of bacterial cell walls (mureine / peptidoglycans ), the systematics of lactobacilli , the chemotaxonomy of plants and microorganisms and one New conception of the phylogeny of organisms. It provided the first experimental evidence of photophosphorylation in vivo . His discovery of fundamental cell wall differences between bacteria and archaea (until 1990 "Archaebacteria") led him to the realization that these form an independent group of organisms and made him the founder of archaea research in Germany. Together with Carl Woese , he proposed a family tree of life with the three domains Archaea , Bacteria , Eucarya . Topics of his applied research were e.g. B. the microbiology of milk, dairy products or waste water, the production of biogas and research into forest damage. His own research led to his decisive criticism of the so-called forest dieback.


Otto Kandler was born on October 23, 1920 in Deggendorf in Lower Bavaria as the sixth child of a gardener family and was interested in plants and in nature in general at an early age. When he told the pastor at the age of 12 that he had read about Charles Darwin , he received a stick for it; but his interest in questions of evolutionary biology accompanied him throughout his life. He attended elementary school in Schaching / Deggendorf for eight years and was then supposed to do an apprenticeship because his parents could not afford the school fees required at the time for the grammar school. However, his teachers encouraged the parents to allow their son to continue studying. From 1935 to 1938 he attended the “German Advanced School” in Straubing, a teacher training institute for talented children from a poor family. However, his study plans were thwarted by World War II, he was drafted into the Reich Labor Service and later had to serve as a ground radio operator in Russia until the end of the war. At the end of the war, his unit was relocated to Austria. In order not to fall into Russian captivity, he rode his bicycle into territory already occupied by the Americans, became an American prisoner of war, but was released after a short time. 1945–1946 he rebuilt his parents' nursery in Deggendorf; white cabbage and chrysanthemums in particular brought in some money, which he later used to finance his studies.

Wall mosaic in the entrance hall of the historic building of the Botanical Institute of the LMU in Munich, Menzingerstr. 67; Inauguration in 1914.

Kandler was very interested in the natural sciences, but it was not until 1946 that he was able to enroll at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich (LMU) for botany, zoology, chemistry, geology and physics; he also attended philosophy lectures. The institutes were in ruins, so, as was customary at the time, he had to do rubble clearing and construction work for admission to the course. After three semesters he looked for a topic for his doctoral thesis in botany and was the first in Germany to cultivate isolated plant tissue from 1947 to study metabolism and growth under defined in vitro conditions. In 1949 he completed his dissertation (summa cum laude) and became a scientific assistant at the Botanical Institute of the LMU; After his habilitation in 1953, he continued to work as a private lecturer at the LMU until 1957. In 1953 he married Gertraud Schäfer, then a PhD student in microbiology. They have three daughters and four grandchildren. For his work on photophosphorylation, he received a generous research grant from the Rockefeller Foundation for a year in the USA, which he took from 1956–1957.

After his return he took over (worn down by the desolate laboratory equipment of the Botanical Institute in Munich) in 1957 the management of the Bacteriological Institute of the South German Experimental and Research Institute for Dairy Farming in Weihenstephan , which he continued until 1965, not least because of the excellent laboratory conditions there to be able to. In 1960 he was appointed to the chair for applied botany at the Technical University of Munich , where he first had to modernize the necessary research laboratories. In 1968 he was offered the chair for general botany at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich , which he held until his retirement in 1986. His broad scientific interest is evident from the titles of his more than 400 publications.

Plant physiology

From the beginning, he was particularly interested in the metabolism and growth processes of plants and the factors responsible for them, in particular photosynthesis , which was not yet understood at the time, and plant carbohydrate metabolism. For his doctoral thesis (1949) he produced - as described above - plant tissue cultures for the first time in Germany and used them to conduct metabolic physiological experiments under defined in vitro conditions .

In his contribution "Historical perspectives on queries concerning photophosphorylation" Kandler describes the beginnings of photophosphorylation research and that of his own interest in it: In 1948 he was inspired by a lecture by Feodor Lynen (Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, 1964) on the phosphate metabolism of yeast. In these post-war years, the original Chemical Institute of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich was still in ruins, so Feodor Lynen and his assistant Helmut Holzer worked temporarily as guests in the undamaged Botanical Institute, coincidentally next door to the laboratory where Kandler and his PhD thesis was busy. Kandler was impressed by the experimental methods in the Lynen laboratory, which he followed closely; he and Holzer, who was the same age, became good friends. At that time, Holzer succeeded in first demonstrating the formation of ATP in yeast during the oxidation of butyric acid to hydroxybutyric acid. Kandler then transferred the technique used to measure the rate of phosphorylation in vivo to photosynthesis experiments with Chlorella .

In 1950 he was the first to succeed in experimentally demonstrating light-dependent ATP formation ( photophosphorylation ) in vivo in intact Chlorella cells, findings to which Daniel I. Arnon , who later demonstrated photophosphorylation in isolated chloroplasts, gave full credit. On the basis of these publications, he was offered a Rockefeller scholarship, which enabled him to spend six months in the USA in the laboratories of Martin Gibbs ( Brookhaven National Laboratory , Long Island, New York) and Melvin Calvin (Chemistry Department, University ) in 1956/57 of California, Berkeley, 1961 Nobel Prize in Chemistry ) to continue working on central questions of photosynthesis (e.g. the biochemical pathway of carbon in photosynthesis, now known as the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle ). From there he brought the method of radioactive marking and working with radioactive isotopes to Germany.

Together with his colleagues, Kandler later demonstrated the occurrence of ADP-glucose, the glucose donor in starch biosynthesis, in plants for the first time. He contributed significantly to the elucidation of the complicated biosynthesis of branched-chain monosaccharides (witch hazel, apiose) and finally elucidated the biosynthesis of the oligosaccharides most common in plants , the sugars of the raffinose family. In connection with the last-mentioned finding, the function of galactinol, a galactoside of inositol, as a galactosyl donor and thus that of inositol as a cofactor for sugar transfer reactions in plants was discovered.


A focus of Otto Kandler's research was on the metabolism and chemotaxonomy of plants and microorganisms, especially the chemistry of the cell walls of bacteria. In addition to his core interests in plant physiology, Kandler took an early interest in bacteria and, in his search for “primordial bacteria”, especially in the presence or absence of their cell walls. Together with his wife Gertraud, he published works that are still cited today on the so-called PPLOs, penicillin-resistant bacteria (now mycoplasma ) and L-forms of bacteria (bacteria that have lost their cell walls). In this work it was shown that PPLOs (mycoplasma) and L-form bacteria do not multiply by dividing into two (binary fission), but by budding.

During his time as head of the Bacteriological Institute of the South German Research and Laboratory for Dairy Farming in Freising-Weihenstephan, he dealt intensively with milk bacteriology, in particular with the physiology and systematics of lactic acid bacteria ( lactobacilli ), about which he also read the relevant chapter in " Bergey's Manual ”, the“ bible ”of microbiologists. In addition, he wrote numerous papers on the isolation, description and taxonomy of other bacteria.

Kandler was one of the first to study the chemistry and structure of the cell walls of bacteria - together with his working group. The primary structure of peptidoglycan (murein), the typical component of the cell walls of bacteria, was elucidated. Kandler recognized the value of the amino acid sequences of peptidoglycan as chemotaxonomic markers. The various types of peptidoglycan and their taxonomic significance (as markers for the deepest branches in the bacterial family tree) have been described in detail ( Schleifer and Kandler 1972). Kandler's cell wall analyzes also included “methane bacteria” ( methane producers or methanogens ) and “halobacteria” ( halophiles ).

In October 1976 Kandler discovered that two strains of Methanosarcina barkeri do not contain any peptidoglycan (Kandler and Hippe 1977). This led him to the realization that methanogens (such as Methanosarcina ) represent an independent group that is different from bacteria. The proof of the absence of peptidoglycan in "methane bacteria" and also in "halobacteria" (the first two groups, which were then referred to as " archaea bacteria" (since 1990 archaea )), was initially an essential finding for the separation of this group of organisms from the bacteria. In some of the "archaebacteria" (now Archaea ), a new type of cell wall component, pseudomurein (now pseudopeptidoglycan ), was detected by Kandler and König in 1979 , and its structure was elucidated.

The thermophilic methane generator Methanopyrus kandleri was named by Karl O. Stetter in honor of Kandler's 70th birthday.

Together with Hans Günter Schlegel , Kandler was instrumental in founding the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures ( DSMZ ) in Braunschweig.

Kandler was the founder and editor of the journal Systematic and Applied Microbiology as well as co-editor of the Archives of Microbiology and the Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie .

Archaean research and the 3-domain concept of life

Kandler's main focus in microbiology was research on archaea (called "archaebacteria" until 1990). The discovery he made in October 1976 that the peptidoglycan (murein) typical of bacteria is missing in the cell walls of two methanogen strains (Kandler & Hippe 1977) was a first indication that the methanogens form an independent group of organisms. Otto Kandler was delighted to learn from a letter from Ralph Wolfe on November 11, 1976 that Carl Woese (University of Illinois, Urbana, USA) had just discovered fundamental differences between bacteria and methanogens with his 16S rRNA method. Wolfe (a methanogen expert) had also offered in this letter to send methanogen cultures for cell wall analysis to Kandler, whom he knew as a cell wall expert. When Kandler received this letter, Marvin P. Bryant (also a methanogen expert from the University of Illinois) happened to be sitting in his office, with whom he had already planned to work together on the basis of his discovery to investigate further methanogen cell walls. Kandler immediately replied how impressed he was with Woee's results and that he would very much like to study Wolfe's methanogenic strains. He also wrote that the methanogens and probably also the halophiles should be regarded as a separate group that had branched off from the other prokaryotes before the "invention" of peptidoglycan.

Carl Woese (left), Otto Kandler and Ralph Wolfe during their hike to the Hochiss (2299 m, Rofan Mountains) in the summer of 1981; Photo: Gertraud Kandler

Kandler's first visit to Carl Woese took place in January 1977. He was immediately convinced of Woese's new concept, because his cell wall analyzes matched the results of Woese's 16S rRNA analyzes perfectly. This was the beginning of a fruitful transatlantic collaboration based on the exchange of bacterial cultures, data and ideas. At the same time and in constant contact, Kandler and his group examined the composition of the cell walls and Woese and his group examined the 16S rRNA expression in the same microorganisms.

In their seminal, frequently cited publication, Woese and Fox introduced the term "archaebacteria" in November 1977. They cited Kandler's work and named the very first three pieces of evidence for the concept of "archaebacteria", which at that time only included methanogens:

  1. The lack of peptidoglycan in methanogens (Kandler)
  2. Two unusual coenzymes in methanogens (Wolfe)
  3. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing in methanogens (Woese).

In this publication they still used a preliminary terminology ("domains" for prokaryotes / eukaryotes; "primary kingdoms" or "urkingdoms" for the three groups "eubacteria", "archaebacteria" and "urkaryotes" - since 1990 bacteria, archaea and eukarya ) .

But while Woese initially received little support and z. Sometimes even received severe criticism for his suggestion to subdivide living beings into three "lines of descent", Kandler was fully convinced of this and described Woese as "Darwin of the twentieth century".

Carl Woese (left), Ralph Wolfe and Otto Kandler (right) celebrate the "archaebacteria" on a mountain tour on the Hochiss (2299 m, Rofan Mountains) in the summer of 1981; Photo: Gertraud Kandler

With all his strength and passion, Kandler worked to ensure that the "archaebacteria" ( archaea since 1990 ) became an outstanding research focus in Germany. In the spring of 1978 in Munich he organized the first ever “Archaebacteria” meeting, which Carl Woese was unable to attend. In the summer of 1979, Kandler managed to invite Carl Woese to give a guest lecture at a conference of the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology in Munich and Carl Woese came to Germany (Munich) for the first time. At the Botanical Institute of the LMU Munich, Carl Woese was received with fanfare, a concert and a dinner party in the large entrance hall (photo see section “Life”). In the summer of 1981, Kandler also organized the first international conference on (then still) "Archaebacteria" in Munich, in which Carl Woese and Ralph Wolfe also took part.

The numerous evidence presented there for essential structural, biochemical and molecular differences between bacteria and "archaebacteria" led to the concept of "archaebacteria" and their uniqueness being recognized. Carl Woese, Ralph Wolfe and Otto Kandler then celebrated the "archaebacteria" on a joint mountain tour on the summit of the Hochiss (Rofan Mountains) at an altitude of 2299 m.

Phylogenetic tree of life with the three domains Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya (Woese, Kandler & Wheelis, 1990, p. 4578)

In 1985 Otto Kandler and Wolfram Zillig (again in Munich) organized a second international "Archaebacteria" conference. In the meantime, approval of the "archaebacteria" concept and the phylogenetic division of organisms into three groups (bacteria, "archaebacteria" and eukaryotes) on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing and additional features, as proposed by Woese, was not universally accepted . An intensive discussion about the classification level and terminology had also started (various terms such as primary kingdoms, urkingdoms, empire etc. were in circulation). A detailed documentation of this discussion as well as the development of the archaea and the 3-domain concept can be found in Jan Sapp.

After working together for 13 years, Carl Woese and Otto Kandler proposed in their publication in 1990 (Woese, Kandler, Wheelis) the family tree of life known today as the "Tree of Life" and introduced the term domain as the highest level of classification. They also coined the names commonly used today for the three domains Bacteria , Archaea and Eucarya (later corrected to Eukarya ). The formal description of the taxon Archaea was also given in the above publication, one of the most cited papers published in the communications of the American Academy of Sciences. (For the role of the third author, see Sapp (p. 261f and 386) and Quammen (p. 210f))

The early diversification of life in 3 domains with Kandler's precell theory (Kandler 1994, p. 155)

In a second publication they emphasized the contrast between their "natural system" of a global classification (a phylogenetic division) on the one hand, and the conventional division of organisms into two ( prokaryotes , eukaryotes ) or five groupings (5-kingdom system) on the other.

Today is the division of the family tree of life into three domains - on a the rich (kingdoms) parent level - school knowledge.

Also worth mentioning are Otto Kandler's work on the early diversification of life and the precell theory formulated therein, in which he assumes that there cannot have been a common “first cell”, but that each domain is derived from a population through cellularization of pre-cells, whereby the “invention” of cell envelopes played an important role. The importance of Kandler's work for our understanding of the early evolution of life has been recognized several times. B. Müller 1998, Wiegel 1998, Wächtershäuser 2003, and 2006 as well as von Schleifer 2011.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology

Louis Pasteur was one of his scientific idols and he liked to quote his opinion that there is no such thing as applied science, only the application of science. During his time as head of the Bacteriological Institute of the South German Research and Laboratory for Dairy Farming in Freising-Weihenstephan, he concentrated on the microbiology of milk and dairy products and dealt, for example, with methods of extending the shelf life of milk or the use of Lactobacillus acidophilus as a starting culture for yogurt production. For the fermentation of milk or vegetable products, he developed various processes (further examples from Schleifer 2011). He also used his research on thermophilic and methanogenic organisms with regard to their ability to produce biogas from wastewater or waste.


Kandler's role as an early representative of a science-based ecology is less well known today. He was a co-founder of the Commission for Ecology of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (now renamed Forum for Ecology), of which he was a member until 2006. His own interest in ecology was very broad and ranged from bacterial interactions and the condition of the forest to the repopulation of downtown Munich by lichens (Kandler & Poelt 1984). Otto Kandler's own investigations and his always fact-oriented thinking made him one of the most important, because most knowledgeable, critics of the research on alleged "forest dieback", which was heavily funded by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology.


Publications (selection)

  • Otto Kandler: About the relationship between the phosphate balance and photosynthesis: I. Phosphate level fluctuations in Chlorella pyrenoidosa as a result of the light-dark change. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 5b, 423–437, 1950 pdf (PDF)
  • Otto Kandler: Energy Transfer through Phosphorylation Mechanisms in Photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 11, 37-54 (1960), doi: 10.1146 / annurev.pp.11.060160.000345 .
  • Otto Kandler: The chemical composition of the bacterial cell wall as a chemo-taxonomic feature. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie I.Abt.Originale 205, 197–209, 1967.
  • Karl-Heinz Schleifer, Otto Kandler: Peptidoglycan Types of Bacterial Cell Walls and their Taxonomic Implications. Bacteriological Reviews 36, 407-477, 1972, PMC 408328 (free full text).
  • Otto Kandler, Hans Hippe: Lack of peptidoglycan in the cell walls of Methanosarcina barkeri. Archives of Microbiology 113, 57-60, 1977, doi: 10.1007 / BF00428580 .
  • Helmut König, Otto Kandler: N-Acetyltalosaminuronic acid a constituent of the pseudomurein of the genus Methanobacterium. Archives of Microbiology 123, 295-299, 1979, doi: 10.1007 / BF00406664 .
  • Otto Kandler: Cell Wall Structures and their Phylogenetic Implications. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene: I. Dept. Originals C: General, applied and ecological microbiology 3. 149–160, 1982 ScienceDirect .
  • Carl R. Woese, Otto Kandler, Mark L. Wheelis: Towards a natural system of organisms: Proposal of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . 87 (12): 4576-4579 (1990) pdf (PDF)
  • Otto Kandler: Cell Wall Biochemistry and Three-Domain Concept of Life. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 16 (4): 501-509, 1994 ScienceDirect .
  • Otto Kandler: Fourteen years of discussion about forest damage: scenarios and facts. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 47, 419-430, 1994 pdf (PDF)
  • Otto Kandler: Cell Wall Biochemistry in Archaea and its Phylogenetic Implications. Journal of Biological Physics 20, 165-169, 1995, doi: 10.1007 / BF00700433 .
  • Otto Kandler: The early diversification of life and the origin of the three domains: A proposal. pp. 19-31. In: Thermophiles: The keys to molecular evolution and the origin of life? (J. Wiegel & MW Adams eds.) Taylor and Francis Ltd. London, UK, 1998 googlebooks
  • Otto Kandler, Helmut König: Cell wall polymers in Archaea (Archaebacteria). Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 54 (4), 305-308, 1998, doi: 10.1007 / s000180050156 .

Literature (selection)

  • Hans E. Müller: Portrait: "Otto Kandler and modern microbiology" . In: The microbiologist. Announcements from the professional association of doctors for microbiology, virology and infection epidemiology . Volume 8, No. 3, 1998, pp. 38–43, BAdW (PDF)
  • Jan Sapp: The New Foundations of Evolution: On the Tree of Life . Oxford University Press 2009, Oxford / New York, ISBN 978-0-19-973438-2 googlebooks .
  • Karl-Heinz Schleifer : Prof Dr Dr hc mult Otto Kandler: distinguished botanist and microbiologist . In: The Bulletin of BISMiS , Vol. 2, part 2, 2011, pp.141–148 (December 2011) (Bergey's International Society for Microbial Systematics) BAdW (PDF).
  • Widmar Tanner : Obituary: Professor Dr. Otto Kandler (1920–2017) . German Botanical Society (November 23, 2017).
  • Govindjee, Widmar Tanner : Remembering Otto Kandler (1920–2017) and his contributions . In: Photosynthesis Research , 137 (3), 2018, pp. 337-340 (June 2018) doi: 10.1007 / s11120-018-0530-z , PMID 29948750 (correction in the abstract: three forms of life (Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya)).
  • Widmar Tanner , Susanne Renner : Prof. Dr. Dr. hc mult. Otto Kandler . BAdW (PDF) September 2018.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Widmar Tanner : Obituary: Professor Dr. Otto Kandler (1920–2017) . Ed .: German Botanical Society. November 23, 2017 ( ).
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Karl-Heinz Schleifer : "Otto Kandler: distinguished botanist and microbiologist . In: The Bulletin of BISMiS. Bergey's International Society for Microbial Systematics . band 2 , no. 2 , December 2011, p. 141–148 ( [PDF]).
  3. a b c d e f Govindjee, Widmar Tanner : Remembering Otto Kandler (1920–2017) and his contributions . In: Photosynthesis Research . 2018, doi : 10.1007 / s11120-018-0530-z (correction in the abstract: Three forms of life (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya)).
  4. a b c d Otto Kandler, Hans Hippe: Lack of peptidoglycan in the cell walls of Methanosarcina barkeri . In: Archives of Microbiology . tape 113 , no. 1-2 , 1977, pp. 57-60 , doi : 10.1007 / BF00428580 , PMID 889387 (Received: January 26, 1977).
  5. a b Otto Kandler: Cell Wall Biochemistry in Archaea and its Phylogenetic Implications . In: Journal of Biological Physics . tape 20 , no. 1-4 , 1995, pp. 165-169 , doi : 10.1007 / BF00700433 .
  6. a b c d e Carl R. Woese , Otto Kandler, Mark L. Wheelis: Towards a natural system of organisms: Proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya . In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . tape 87 , no. 12 , 1990, pp. 4576–4579 , doi : 10.1073 / pnas.87.12.4576 , PMID 2112744 , PMC 54159 (free full text) - ( [PDF]).
  7. a b c d e f Susanne S. Renner : Prof. Dr. Dr. hc mult. Otto Kandler 1920–2017. Descriptor of the Third Domain of Life and pioneer of ecology in Bavaria . In: Reports of the Bavarian Botanical Society . tape 87 , 2017, p. 231–246 ( [PDF]).
  8. a b c d e f g Hans E. Müller: Portrait: "Otto Kandler and modern microbiology" . In: The microbiologist - communications from the professional association of doctors for microbiology, virology and infection epidemiology . tape 8 , no. 3 , 1998, p. 38–43 ( [PDF]).
  9. a b c d e f g h i Jan Sapp : The New Foundations of Evolution: On the Tree of Life . Oxford University Press, New York 2009, ISBN 978-0-19-973438-2 ( ).
  10. a b Otto Kandler: About the relationship between the phosphate balance and photosynthesis I. Fluctuations in phosphate levels in Chlorella pyrenoidosa as a result of the light-dark change . In: Journal for Nature Research . 5b, 1950, p. 423–437 , doi : 10.1515 / znb-1950-0806 ( [PDF]).
  11. a b Otto Kandler: About the relationship between phosphate balance and photosynthesis II. Increased glucose incorporation in light as an indicator of light-dependent phosphorylation . In: Journal for Nature Research . 9b, 1954, pp. 625–644 , doi : 10.1515 / znb-1954-1001 ( [PDF]).
  12. a b Otto Kandler: About the Relationship Between Phosphate Balance and Photosynthesis III. Inhibition analysis of light-dependent phosphorylation . In: Journal for Nature Research . 10b, 1955, pp. 38-46 , doi : 10.1515 / znb-1955-0109 ( [PDF]).
  13. a b Bavarian Academy of Sciences: Deceased members - Otto Kandler
  14. a b c d Prof. Dr. Otto Kandler - Chronological List of Writings. (PDF) In: Bavarian Academy of Sciences - Member entry Otto Kandler. Retrieved January 8, 2018 .
  15. Otto Kandler: The plant organ and tissue culture . In: Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau . tape 1 , 1948, p. 28-33 .
  16. Otto Kandler: Experiments on the culture of isolated plant tissue in vitro . In: Planta . tape 38 , 1950, pp. 564-585 , doi : 10.1007 / BF01939622 .
  17. Otto Kandler: Historical perspectives on queries concerning photophosphorylation . In: George Akoyunoglou (Ed.): Photosynthesis. Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Photosynthesis, September 7-13, 1980, Halkidiki, Greece . Vol.1: Photophysical Processes, Membrane Energization. Balaban Intern. Science Services, Philadelphia, PA 1981, ISBN 0-86689-006-8 , pp. 3–14 ( ).
  18. Feodor Lynen , Helmut Holzer : About the aerobic phosphate requirement of yeast II. The conversion of butyl alcohol and butyraldehyde . In: Liebig's annals of chemistry . tape 563 , no. 2 , 1949, p. 213-239 , doi : 10.1002 / jlac.19495630206 ( [PDF]).
  19. ^ Daniel I. Arnon : Phosphorus metabolism and photosynthesis . In: Annual Review of Plant Physiology . tape 7 , 1956, pp. 325–354 ( [PDF]).
  20. Otto Kandler, Martin Gibbs: Asymmetric distribution of C14 in the glucose phosphates formed during photosynthesis . In: Plant Physiology . tape 31 , 1956, pp. 411-412 ( [PDF]).
  21. Otto Kandler, Herbert Hopf: Occurrence, metabolism and function of oligosaccharides . In: Jack Preiss (Ed.): The Biochemistry of Plants. Carbohydrates: Structure and Function . tape 3 . Academic Press, New York et al. a. 1980, ISBN 978-0-12-675403-2 , pp. 221-270 , doi : 10.1016 / B978-0-12-675403-2.50013-2 .
  22. a b Otto Kandler, Herbert Hopf: Oligosaccharides as taxonomic and phylogenetic markers in angiosperms . In: Abstracts of Second International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology Univ Br C, 17-24 July 1980 . Vancouver 1980, p. 237 .
  23. a b Otto Kandler, Herbert Hopf: Oligosaccharides based on sucrose (sucrosyl oligosaccharides) . In: Frank A. Loewus, Widmar Tanner (Ed.): Plant Carbohydrates I. Encyclopedia Plant Physiology (New Series) . 13 A. Springer, New York / Heidelberg / Berlin 1982, ISBN 978-3-642-68277-3 , p. 348-383 , doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-642-68275-9_8 ( ).
  24. a b Susanne S. Renner , Widmar Tanner : Obituary Kandler Otto (online version). (PDF) In: 2018, accessed October 30, 2018 .
  25. M. Leaver, P. Domínguez-Cuevas, JM Coxhead, RA Daniel and Jeff Errington: Life without a wall or division machine in Bacillus subtilis . In: Nature . tape 460 , no. 7254 , 2009, p. 538 ( ).
  26. Romain Mercier, Yoshikazu Kawai and Jeff Errington: General principles for the formation and proliferation of a wall-free (L-form) state in bacteria . In: eLife . tape 3 , 2014 ( ).
  27. Jeff Errington, Katarzyna Mickiewicz, Yoshikazu Kawai and Ling Juan Wu: L-form bacteria, chronic diseases and the origins of life . In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences . tape 371 , no. 1707 , 2016, p. 2015.0494 ( ).
  28. Gertraud Kandler, Otto Kandler: Investigations into the morphology and the multiplication of organisms similar to pleuropneumonia and the L phase of bacteria. I. Light microscopic examinations . In: Archives for Microbiology . tape 21 , no. 2 , 1954, p. 178–201 , PMID 14350641 ( [PDF] download the English translation).
  29. Gertraud Kandler, Otto Kandler, Oskar Huber: Investigations into the morphology and the multiplication of organisms similar to pleuropneumonia and the L phase of bacteria. II. Electron microscopic examinations . In: Archives for Microbiology. tape 21 , no. 2 , 1954, p. 202-216 , PMID 14350642 ( [PDF] download English translation).
  30. ^ Karl-Heinz Schleifer , Otto Kandler: Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications . In: Bacteriological Reviews . tape 36 , no. 4 , 1972, p. 407-477 , PMID 4568761 , PMC 408328 (free full text).
  31. Helmut König, Otto Kandler: The amino acid sequence of the peptide moiety of the pseudomurein from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum . In: Archives of Microbiology . 271-275 edition. tape 121 , no. 3 , 1979, PMID 518234 .
  32. Kurr Margit; Huber R; King H; Jannasch HW; Fricke H; Trincone A; Kristjansson JK; Stetter Karl O .: Methanopyrus kandleri, gen. And sp. nov. darstellt a novel group of hyperthermophilic methanogens, growing at 110 ° C . In: Archives of Microbiology . tape 156 , no. 4 , 1991, pp. 239-247 , doi : 10.1007 / BF00262992 .
  33. Karl O. Stetter : Part 4: Extremophiles: Thermophiles ". History of Discovery of Hyperthermophiles . In: Koki Horikoshi, Garabed Antranikian, Alan T. Bull, Frank T. Robb, Karl O. Stetter (ed.): Extremophiles Handbook . Springer Science + Business Media, Tokyo 2011, ISBN 978-4-431-53897-4 , pp. 404 - 425 ( ).
  34. ^ A b c Carl R. Woese , George E. Fox: Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: The primary kingdoms . In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . tape 74 , no. November 11 , 1977, pp. 5088-5090 ( [PDF]).
  35. Virginia Morell: Microbiology's scarred revolutionary . In: Science . tape 276 , no. 5313 , 1997, pp. 699-701 ( [PDF]).
  36. Otto and Gertraud Kandler: Dear friend and “Archaekaiser”. In: Carl R. Woese Guestbook. Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, February 27, 2013, accessed July 7, 2018 .
  37. Erwin Beck, Karl-Heinz Schleifer: Prof. Dr. Dr. hc mult. Otto Kandler: Obituary . In: Biology in Our Time . tape 47 , 2017, p. 361-362 ( ).
  38. Otto Kandler (Ed.): Archaebacteria. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Archaebacteria (June 27th – July 1st 1981) . Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-437-10797-6 .
  39. Otto Kandler, Wolfram Zillig (Eds.): Archaebacteria '85. Proceedings of the EMBO Workshop on Molecular Genetics of Archaebacteria. International Workshop on Biology and Biochemistry of Archaebacteria (June 23-26, 1985) . Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 978-3-437-11057-3 .
  40. David Quammen: The Tangled Tree. A Radical New History of Life . Simon & Schuster, New York 2018, ISBN 978-1-4767-7662-0 ( ).
  41. a b Otto Kandler: The early diversification of life . In: Stefan Bengtson (Ed.): Early Life on Earth. Nobel Symposium 84 . Columbia UP, New York 1994, pp. 152-160 .
  42. Mark L. Wheelis, Otto Kandler, Carl R. Woese : On the nature of global classification . In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . tape 89 , no. 7 , 1992, pp. 2930-2934 , doi : 10.1073 / pnas.89.7.2930 , PMID 11537862 , PMC 48777 (free full text) - ( ).
  43. ^ Otto Kandler: The early diversification of life and the origin of the three domains: A proposal . In: Jürgen Wiegel, Michael WW Adams (Eds.): Thermophiles: The keys to molecular evolution and the origin of life? Taylor and Francis Ltd., London 1998, ISBN 0-203-48420-7 , pp. 19–31 ( ).
  44. Jürgen Wiegel: Lateral Gene Exchange, an Evolutionary Mechanism for Extending the Upper or Lower Temperature Limits for Growth of Microorganisms? A hypothesis . In: Jürgen Wiegel, Michael WW Adams (Eds.): Thermophiles: The keys to molecular evolution and the origin of life? Taylor and Francis Ltd., London 1998, ISBN 0-203-48420-7 , pp. 177-185 .
  45. ^ Günter Wächtershäuser : From pre-cells to Eukarya - a tale of two lipids . In: Molecular Microbiology . tape 47 , no. 1 , p. 13–22 , doi : 10.1046 / j.1365-2958.2003.03267.x / pdf .
  46. Günter Wächtershäuser : From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic life to Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya . In: Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences . tape 361 , no. 1474 , October 29, 2006, p. 1787–1808 , doi : 10.1098 / rstb.2006.1904 , PMID 17008219 , PMC 1664677 (free full text).
  47. On the history of the Ecology Forum. Retrieved November 30, 2017 .
  48. Otto Kandler, Josef Poelt: Resettlement of the inner city of Munich through lichen . In: Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau . tape 37 , 1984, pp. 90-95 .
  49. a b Otto Kandler: Fourteen Years of Discussion on Forest Damage: Scenarios and Facts . In: Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau . tape 47 , no. 11 , 1994, pp. 419-430 ( [PDF]).
  50. Heinz Horeis: Bury the forest dying! In: Novo magazine . No. 79 , November 2005 ( ).
  51. Member entry by Otto Kandler (with picture) at the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina , accessed on July 15, 2016.
  52. Bergey Award
  53. Honor on the occasion of the presentation of the Professor Hermann Weigmann Medal for Professor Dr. Dr. hc Otto Kandler, Munich . In: Forum Microbiology . tape 7 , no. 4 , 1984, pp. 214 .
  54. Ferdinand Cohn Medal. In: Former awardees. German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM), accessed on December 16, 2018 .
  55. Honorary members of the German Botanical Society. Retrieved December 16, 2018 .
  56. Widmar Tanner : Laudation for Prof. Dr. O. Kandler (on the occasion of the appointment as honorary member of the German Botanical Society on September 15, 1992) . In: Botanica Acta . tape 105 , 1992, pp. A30–31 ( [PDF]).
  57. Honorary members of the Association for General and Applied Microbiology (VAAM). Retrieved December 16, 2018 .
  58. Bavarian Order of Merit for three LMU professors . In: Information Service Science . July 14, 2005. Retrieved November 23, 2017.